a patient who has bladder cancer



Bladder Cancer—Patient Version. Health Professional Version. The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage.


What is the best diet for bladder cancer patients?

 · How does the doctor know I have bladder cancer? Signs of bladder cancer are problems peeing, pain when peeing, needing to go more often than normal, and seeing blood in your urine. If signs are pointing to bladder cancer, more tests will be done. Here are some of the tests you may need: Tests that may be done

What is the best treatment for bladder cancer?

 · Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. Smoking can affect the risk of bladder cancer. Signs and symptoms of bladder cancer include blood in the urine and pain during urination. Tests that examine the urine and bladder are used to diagnose bladder cancer.

What is the best hospital for bladder cancer?

The outlook for people with stage 0a (non-invasive papillary) bladder cancer is very good. These cancers can be cured with treatment. During long-term follow-up care, more superficial cancers are often found in the bladder or in other parts of the urinary system.


How Does The Doctor Know I Have Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer might cause symptoms such as: 1. Having trouble peeing 2. Feeling pain when peeing 3. Needing to go more often than normal 4. Seeing…

Tests to Look For Bladder Cancer

Your doctor may do other tests to find out more about the cancer. Some of them are:X-ray: Dye is put into a vein for a special x-ray of the kidneys…

How Serious Is My Cancer?

If you have bladder cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called staging. Your doctor will want to find out the s…

What Kind of Treatment Will I Need?

There’s more than one way to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you. Doctors may have d…

What Will Happen After Treatment?

You will be glad when treatment is over. But it’s hard not to worry about cancer coming back. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry…

Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis). In either case, the cancer has not inv…

Treating Stage I Bladder Cancer

Stage I bladder cancers have grown into the connective tissue layer of the bladder wall but have not reached the muscle layer.Transurethral resecti…

Treating Stage II Bladder Cancer

These cancers have invaded the muscle layer of the bladder wall. Transurethral resection (TURBT) is typically the first treatment for these cancers…

Treating Stage III Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs.Transurethral resection (TURBT) is typical…

Treating Stage IV Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the abdominal or pelvic wall (T4b tumors) or have spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. Stage IV ca…

Treating Bladder Cancer That Progresses Or Recurs

If cancer continues to grow during treatment (progresses) or comes back (recurs), your treatment options will depend on where and how much the canc…


What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys.

What is it called when you have cancer in your bladder?

Cancer that is in the lining of the bladder is called superficial bladder cancer. Cancer that has spread through the lining of the bladder and invades the muscle wall of the bladder or has spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes is called invasive bladder cancer. See the following PDQ summaries for more information:

What is an IVP pyelogram?

Intravenous pyelogram (IVP): A series of x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to find out if cancer is present in these organs. A contrast dye is injected into a vein. As the contrast dye moves through the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, x-rays are taken to see if there are any blockages.

How does cancer spread?

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:

What type of cancer begins in squamous cells?

Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells (thin, flat cells lining the inside of the bladder). Cancer may form after long-term infection or irritation. Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in glandular cells that are found in the lining of the bladder.

Why do cancer tests have to be repeated?

Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests.

Why do we do clinical trials?

Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.

What is the first treatment for bladder cancer?

Chemo (with or without radiation) is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body (M1). After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done.

What is stage 0 bladder cancer?

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis or carcinoma in situ). In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded (spread deeper into) the bladder wall.

What to do if you have cancer that hasn’t been removed?

(Less often, close follow-up alone might be an option.) If all of the cancer wasn’t removed, options are intravesical BCG or cystectomy (removal of part or all of the bladder).

How to get rid of stage IV cancer?

The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options.

What is the treatment for cancer that recurs in distant parts of the body?

Cancers that recur in distant parts of the body can be harder to remove with surgery, so other treatments, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy , might be needed. For more on dealing with a recurrence, see Understanding Recurrence.

Can you get a radical cystectomy before surgery?

Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo. But most doctors prefer to give chemo before surgery because it’s been shown to help patients live longer than surgery alone. When chemo is given first, surgery is delayed. This is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the bladder cancer, but it might be harmful if the tumor continues to grow during chemo.

Can you get a partial cystectomy for bladder cancer?

Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients . Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

Being unable to urinate. Lower back pain on one side. Loss of appetite and weight loss. Feeling tired or weak. Swelling in the feet. Bone pain. Again, many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than bladder cancer, but it’s important to have them checked.

Why is bladder cancer so early?

Bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms that cause a person to see a health care provider.

Why do I have trouble peeing?

Having to get up to urinate many times during the night. These symptoms are more likely to be caused by a urinary tract infection (UTI), bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or an enlarged prostate (in men).

How long does urine stay clear after bladder cancer?

Blood may be present one day and absent the next, with the urine remaining clear for weeks or even months. But if a person has bladder cancer, at some point the blood reappears.

Can bladder cancer cause a change in urination?

Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as: Having to urinate more often than usual. Pain or burning during urination. Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full. Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream.

What type of cancer is in the bladder?

There are different types of bladder cancer, depending on the kind of cancer cell and the layer (s) of the urothelium affected. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer, which affects the inner lining of the bladder. Squamous cell carcinoma is caused by thin, flat cells that can form in the bladder, leading to cancer. The third type of bladder cancer—adenocarcinoma—is very rare and begins in the secretory cells.

What to do after bladder cancer diagnosis?

The course of treatment depends on the type and stage of cancer, and your nursing care will be based on the medical treatment plan implemented.

What is the best way to prevent a stoma from leaking urine?

Routine stoma care. Other primary complications include infection and wound dehiscence. One key nursing intervention to help prevent infection is the use of a larger drainage bag at night. This will prevent urine from back-flowing through the stoma when the patient is sleeping.

How often should you examine a stoma?

Examine the stoma regularly, at least every shift, and more frequently (every 4 hours) within the first 48 hours after it’s created. The stoma should always be pinkish-red and moist. If at any time the stoma is dusky or any shade of blue, you should suspect impaired perfusion, which can lead to necrosis. This is considered an emergency; notify the surgeon immediately. For specific stoma care steps, see Routine stoma care.

What are the nursing interventions for chemotherapy patients?

Keep in mind that when providing nursing care for patients receiving chemotherapy, there are key nursing interventions that are important to include in the care plan, such as assessing for adverse reactions and managing them accordingly. More specifically, include infection and injury prevention and track lab result trends. Initiate neutropenic precautions when the patient’s white blood cell (WBC) count reaches a significantly lower than normal level, typically less than 2,000/mm 3.

Can bladder cancer cause pain?

The tell-tale symptom of bladder cancer is painless hematuria; your patient will report seeing blood in the urine that doesn’t have associated pain. More than 75% of patients with bladder cancer present with hematuria. This should always be considered a serious sign. Usually, the patient presenting to a primary care office is referred to a urologist. Your patient may also complain of changes in his or her urinary pattern, including frequency, the feeling of urgency, or the inability to urinate. Patients may also present with flank pain, weight loss, and leg edema.

Is bladder cancer a common cancer?

The incidence of bladder cancer has steadily increased; in 2013, it ranked as the sixth most common form of cancer. For this reason, the probability of being assigned to care for a patient with newly diagnosed bladder cancer is high. The probability of providing nursing care for a patient with a past medical history of bladder cancer who has a urinary diversion is even higher. As a result, you’ll want to stay up to date with standards of care for bladder cancer. Incorporating best practices into your nursing care plan facilitates the provision of excellent care that leads to optimal patient outcomes.

What is the treatment for high grade bladder cancer?

High-grade bladder cancer: High-grade cancers that are life-threatening and spread quickly need to be treated with chemotherapy, radiation or surgery.

How long do people with bladder cancer live?

Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more . The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time. The physician often uses an overall five-year survival rate.

What is the first line of treatment for metastatic bladder cancer?

Then, the physician may perform a radical cystectomy to remove cancer that has invaded beyond the bladder wall. Metastatic bladder cancer: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first line of treatment for this type of bladder cancer.

What is gallbladder cancer?

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is one of the aggressive cancers of the biliary tract. The gallbladder generates and concentrates bile that aids in the digestion of fats. GBC is a rare, yet deadly cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

What is the procedure to remove bladder cancer?

Tumors in the bladder muscle: In case of bladder cancer that has invaded the muscle wall but hasn’t spread to the lymph nodes, the physician recommends radical cystectomy. In this procedure, the physician removes the bladder, nearby lymph nodes and other nearby organs.

Where does bladder cancer start?

Bladder cancer is a tumor (uncontrolled growth of cells) that starts in your urinary bladder. The urinary bladder is a balloon-like organ present in the lower abdomen near the pelvis. Its function is to store urine coming from the kidneys through the ureters (pipe-like passageways for urine) until it is expelled from the body through the tube-like passage called the urethra.

What is SEER in cancer?

The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) stages are taken from the SEER database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute. SEER database groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages.

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain. It is caused when epithelial cells that line the bladder become malignant.

What are the risk factors for bladder cancer?

Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, frequent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis is typically by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies. Staging of the cancer is determined by transurethral resection and medical imaging.

How to treat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer?

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (those not entering the muscle layer of the bladder) can be “shaved off” using an electrocautery device attached to a cystoscope, which in that case is called a resectoscope. The procedure is called transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and serves primarily for pathological staging. In case of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer the TURBT is in itself the treatment, but in case of muscle invasive cancer, the procedure is insufficient for final treatment. Additionally, blue light cystoscopy with optical-imaging agent Hexaminolevulinate (HAL) is recommended at initial TURBT to increase lesion detection (especially carcinoma in situ) and improve resection quality thereby reducing recurrence. It is important to assess the quality of the resection, if there is evidence of incomplete resection or there is no muscle in the specimen (without which muscle invasiveness cannot be determined) a second TURBT is strongly recommended. Moreover, nearly half of the people with high grade non-invasive disease have residual tumor after primary TURBT, in such cases a second TURBT is important for avoiding under-staging. At this point classifying people into risk groups is recommended. Treatment and surveillance for different risk groups is indicated in the table below.

What are the genes that cause bladder cancer?

Mutations in FGFR3, TP53, PIK3CA, KDM6A, ARID1A, KMT2D, HRAS, TERT, KRAS, CREBBP, RB1 and TSC1 genes may be associated with some cases of bladder cancer. Deletions of parts or whole of chromosome 9 is common in bladder cancer. Low grade cancer are known to harbor mutations in RAS pathway and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, both of which play a role in the MAPK/ERK pathway. p53 and RB gene mutations are implicated in high-grade muscle invasive tumors. Eighty nine percent of muscle invasive cancers have mutations in chromatin remodeling and histone modifying genes. Deletion of both copies of the GSTM1 gene has a modest increase in risk of bladder cancer. GSTM1 gene product glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) participates in the detoxification process of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke. Similarly, mutations in NAT2 ( N-acetyltransferase) is associated with increased risk for bladder cancer. N-acetyltransferase helps in detoxification of carcinogens like aromatic amines (also present in cigarette smoke). Various single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PSCA gene present on chromosome 8 have shown to increase the risk for bladder cancer. PSCA gene promoter region has an androgen response region. Loss of reactivity of this region to androgens is hypothesized as a cause of more number of aggressive tumors in women (unlike in men who have higher amount of androgen).

How long does it take for bladder cancer to go away?

Risk of bladder cancer decreases by 30% within 1–4 years and continues to decrease by 60% at 25 years after smoking cessation. However, former smokers will most likely always be at a higher risk of bladder cancer compared to people who have never smoked. Passive smoking also appear to be a risk.

How many cigarettes a day can you smoke to get bladder cancer?

A risk plateau at smoking about 15 cigarettes a day can be observed (meaning that those who smoke 15 cigarettes a day are approximately at the same risk as those smoking 30 cigarettes a day).

What is the survival rate of a urinary bladder infection?

Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the bladder, or urinary diversion. The typical five-year survival rates in the United States is 77%, Canada is 75%, and Europe is 68%.

What kind of surgeon can treat bladder cancer?

If you need to have surgery as part of your treatment for bladder cancer, then a urological surgeon may perform the operation. Urologists also provide cancer treatment with certain types of chemotherapy.

What is a doctor who treats cancer called?

Doctors who specialize in cancer treatments are called oncologists. 1-3 Oncologists often take a leading role in the cancer care team after a person receives a diagnosis of cancer.

What is a urologist?

Urologists are doctors who specialize in treating the urinary tract and reproductive system. 2 Many people assume that urologists only specialize in treating men, but this is not true. Urologists treat both men and women. Urologists are experts in the health of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra in men and women. In men, they also treat the prostate, testicles, and genitals.

What is the specialty of an oncologist?

Some oncologists specialize in certain types of cancer care. Surgical oncologists specialize in removing tumors and cancerous tissues from the body. Doctors who use radiation to treat cancer are called radiation oncologists. Medical oncologists treat cancer with medications, such as chemotherapy.

What are the best ways to treat cancer?

Depending on your specific treatment plan, you may have other types of healthcare providers on your cancer care team or providing other kinds of support. 1,2 These may include: 1 Nurses, including oncology nurses and nurse practitioners (NPs) 2 Physician assistants (PAs) 3 Pharmacists 4 Psychologists and counselors 5 Nutrition specialists and dietitians 6 Social workers

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