how do they treat bladder cancer



Bladder cancer treatment may include: Surgery, to remove the cancer cells. Chemotherapy in the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy), to treat cancers that are confined to the lining of the bladder but have a high risk of recurrence or progression to a higher stage.May 17, 2021


Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: Bladder Cancer Surgery Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer


Treatments for Muscle-Invasive (Advanced) Bladder Cancer Cystectomy (Bladder Removal) Surgery When bladder cancer tumors completely invade the bladder’s muscular wall, the standard of care is to perform bladder removal surgery. Typically, complete removal of the bladder ( radical cystectomy) is required.


 · The range of treatments offered to people with bladder cancer includes surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiation therapy. A comprehensive cancer center.


 · There are many ways to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you. Bladder cancer is most often treated with: Surgery (an operation) Radiation; Intravesical treatment; Chemo; Immunotherapy ; Sometimes more than one type is used. The treatment plan that’s best for you depends on:

What is the best cure for bladder cancer?

 · Immunotherapy is used to prompt the immune system into attacking cancer cells. BCG is a liquid drug that can be deposited directly into your bladder through a catheter. Doctors have been using this…

What procedures are used to treat bladder cancer?

 · Drug Combinations Used in Bladder Cancer Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer Atezolizumab Avelumab Balversa (Erdafitinib) Bavencio (Avelumab) Cisplatin Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Enfortumab Vedotin-ejfv Erdafitinib Jelmyto (Mitomycin) Keytruda (Pembrolizumab) Mitomycin Nivolumab Opdivo (Nivolumab) Padcev (Enfortumab Vedotin-ejfv) …

What are the best treatment centers for bladder cancer?

What are the chances of survival for bladder cancer?

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Does bladder cancer spread quickly?

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

Is bladder cancer treatable or curable?

Bladder cancer is highly treatable when it is diagnosed in the early stages. The main types of treatments for bladder cancer include: Surgery : Bladder cancer treatment almost always has a surgical component that may be combined with other non-invasive approaches, including those listed below.

What percentage of bladder cancer is curable?

5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancerSEER Stage5-year Relative Survival RateIn situ alone Localized96% 70%Regional38%Distant6%All SEER stages combined77%Mar 1, 2022

Can bladder cancer be cured completely?

Can bladder cancer be cured? Bladder cancer is usually treatable when caught at an early stage but more challenging to address when found later. Recurrence also poses a risk, even with early-stage tumors, so regular surveillance is essential following treatment or surgery.

What are the warning signs of bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer: Symptoms and SignsBlood or blood clots in the urine.Pain or burning sensation during urination.Frequent urination.Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night.Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to pass urine.Lower back pain on 1 side of the body.

Is bladder cancer usually fatal?

The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed. The 5-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 96%.

What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.

Can you have bladder cancer for years and not know it?

It may be seen as a symptom of post-menopausal bleeding, simple cystitis or a urinary tract infection. As a result, a bladder cancer diagnosis can be overlooked for a year or more.

What are the symptoms of stage 1 bladder cancer?

SymptomsBlood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test.Frequent urination.Painful urination.Back pain.

Are most bladder cancers caught early?

Bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms that cause a person to see a health care provider. In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer.

What is the most common treatment for bladder cancer?

Transurethral resection (TURBT) is often done first to find out how far the cancer has grown into the bladder wall. Chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy (removal of the bladder and nearby lymph nodes) is then the standard treatment.

Can a CT scan detect bladder cancer?

A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to create three-dimensional, cross-sectional pictures of the bladder, as well as the ureters and kidneys. A CT scan may be used to see whether bladder cancer has invaded the bladder wall or has spread to other organs or nearby lymph nodes.


How does radiation therapy help bladder cancer?

Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses beams of powerful energy, such as X-rays and protons, to destroy the cancer cells. Radiation therapy for bladder cancer usually is delivered from a machine that moves around your body, directing the energy beams to precise points.

Can bladder cancer recur after treatment?

Bladder cancer may recur, even after successful treatment. Because of this, people with bladder cancer need follow-up testing for years after successful treatment. What tests you’ll have and how often depends on your type of bladder cancer and how it was treated, among other factors.

How to diagnose bladder cancer?

Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include: Using a scope to examine the inside of your bladder (cystoscopy). To perform cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small , narrow tube (cystoscope) through your urethra. The cystoscope has a lens that allows your doctor to see the inside of your urethra and bladder, …


Can TURBT be used for bladder cancer?

TURBT can also be used to treat bladder cancer. Examining a urine sample (urine cytology). A sample of your urine is analyzed under a microscope to check for cancer cells in a procedure called urine cytology. Imaging tests.

What tests can be done to determine if you have bladder cancer?

Tests may include: CT scan.

What is a low grade bladder cancer?

Low-grade bladder cancer. This type of cancer has cells that are closer in appearance and organization to normal cells (well differentiated). A low-grade tumor usually grows more slowly and is less likely to invade the muscular wall of the bladder than is a high-grade tumor. High-grade bladder cancer.


What is the best treatment for cancer?

Radiation therapy, to destroy cancer cells, often as a primary treatment when surgery isn’t an option or isn’t desired. Immunotherapy, to trigger the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells, either in the bladder or throughout the body. Targeted therapy, to treat advanced cancer when other treatments haven’t helped.

What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment approach that uses drugs and vaccines to harness the immune system’s natural ability to fight cancer, in the same way it fights off infections. The approach is still being researched and there is a lot left to learn, but clinical studies have shown that immunotherapy holds a lot of promise in its ability to treat a wide range of malignancies, including some types of bladder cancer.

What is the procedure to remove a bladder tumor?

Cystectomy (Bladder Removal) Surgery. When bladder cancer tumors completely invade the bladder’s muscular wall, the standard of care is to perform bladder removal surgery. Typically, complete removal of the bladder ( radical cystectomy) is required. Partial cystectomy is rare because the requirements are that the tumor is easily accessible …


What percentage of bladder cancer is superficial?

Bladder Cancer Liver Gallbladder and Pancreas Urological Conditions Cancer. Over 75 percent of bladder cancers remain confined to the lining of the bladder and do not invade the bladder wall. These are called nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer, or superficial bladder cancer, and when managed well, they are associated with excellent prognoses.

What is bladder cancer?

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer, or advanced bladder cancer, is cancer that has invaded the bladder wall or spread outside of the bladder. These cancers require more aggressive clinical management. Bladder cancer treatment options vary depending on whether the cancer is nonmuscle-invasive or muscle-invasive, and specific treatments are determined …

What is the procedure called when a camera is passed through the urethra?

Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which a thin, lighted tube with a camera is passed through the urethra into the bladder, allowing your doctor to see the inside of the bladder.


What is a cystoscope?

Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which a thin, lighted tube with a camera is passed through the urethra into the bladder, allowing your doctor to see the inside of the bladder. Most modern cystoscopes are also equipped with channels that permit small instruments to be passed into the bladder.

What is TUR in medical terms?

Transurethral resection (TUR) is an endoscopic or scope procedure that does not involve making an incision in the body.

Who treats bladder cancer?

Surgeons who are specially trained to treat bladder cancers. The Mayo Clinic urologists who treat bladder cancer have additional training and specialize in this area of surgery. This expertise and specialization assures that you receive treatment that’s tailored to fit your specific needs and assures the best outcomes possible.


Is bladder cancer more common in men than women?

Bladder cancer is 3x more common in men than women. At Mayo Clinic, you have access to: Surgeons who are specially trained to treat bladder cancers. The Mayo Clinic urologists who treat bladder cancer have additional training and specialize in this area of surgery.

What is Mayo Clinic?

Mayo Clinic is a leader in bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment, including urologic research, surgical procedures and other treatments.

Does Mayo Clinic require a referral?

In most cases, Mayo Clinic doesn’t require a physician referral. Some insurers require referrals, or may have additional requirements for certain medical care. All appointments are prioritized on the basis of medical need. Learn more about appointments at Mayo Clinic.


What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Immunotherapy is treatment that boosts your immune system to attack the cancer cells. Different types of immunotherapy can be used to treat bladder cancer. These drugs can be put right into the bladder (as a liquid) or given into a vein.

Can chemo be used for bladder cancer?

For early-stage bladder cancers, chemo may be used: Before surgery to shrink a tumor. After surgery to kill any cancer cells that remain. With radiation to help it work better. Chemo is usually the main treatment for advanced bladder cancers, such as those that have spread to other parts of the body.

Where does cancer start?

Cancer can start any place in the body. Cancer that starts in the bladder is called bladder cancer. It starts when cells in the bladder grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body.


What is the tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder?

Tubes called ureters connect your kidneys to the bladder. Urine flows through the ureters and into your bladder, where it’s stored. When you urinate (pee), the bladder squeezes the urine out through a tube called the urethra. Bladder cancer usually starts in the lining or inner layer of the bladder wall.

What tests are done to check for bladder cancer?

This might include a rectal exam, during which a gloved finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, a pelvic exam might also be done.

What is the test for cancer?

Urine tests: For these tests, you’ll be asked to pee in a cup. Your urine is then tested for cancer cells, blood, or certain proteins (called tumor markers). Cystoscopy: For this exam, a doctor called a urologist looks at the inside of your bladder using a tool called a cystoscope.


What does stage mean in cancer?

The stage describes the growth or spread of the cancer in the place it started. It also tells if the cancer has spread to other organs of your body that are close by or farther away. Your cancer can be stage 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. The lower the number, the less the cancer has spread.

What is the procedure called to remove bladder cancer?

It usually follows a procedure called transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). It’s intended to help prevent recurrence. This treatment only affects cells inside the bladder. It’s not useful for later stage bladder cancer that has spread into or beyond the bladder lining, or to other tissues and organs.

What are the side effects of BCG?

One benefit of BCG is that while it affects the cells in your bladder, it doesn’t have a major effect on any other part of your body. But there can be a few side effects such as: 1 fever 2 chills 3 fatigue 4 a burning sensation in the bladder 5 urinary urgency or frequent urination 6 blood in the urine



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Medically reviewed by
Dr. Pawan Katti

Your provider will work with you to develop a care plan that may include one or more of these treatment options.

Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.


Immunotherapy: This therapy helps boost your immune system fight against the cancerous cells.

Atezolizumab . Durvalumab . Avelumab

Chemotherapy: Injection of cancer-fighting medications into the bladder through a catheter to kill the harmful cells.

Gemcitabine/Cisplatin . Methotrexate/ Vinblastine/Doxorubicin/Cisplatin (called MVAC) . Cisplatin/ Methotrexate/Vinblastine (called CMV) . Carboplatin/Paclitaxel . Docetaxel


Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT): An instrument called a resectoscope is inserted into the bladder through the urethra which is used to remove abnormal tissues or tumors.

Cystectomy: Removal of a part of bladder is called as partial cystectomy or complete bladder removal which is called as radical cystectomy.


Radiation therapy:High-energy radiation is used to kill the cancer cells.


Foods to eat:

  • Focus on starchy carbohydrates such as bread, pasta, rice or potatoes
  • Whole grains are highly recommended
  • Eat a variety of fruit and vegetables daily
  • Include lean protein such as meat, fish, eggs, beans or pulses
  • Have milk and cheese

Foods to avoid:

  • Eggs, total fat, butter
  • Soft drinks, caffeine, chlorinated surface water, sugar

Specialist to consult


Specializes in the urinary tract disease.


Specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

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