how does bladder cancer progress

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Bladder cancer gets worse when it grows into or through other layers of the bladder wall. Over time, the cancer may grow outside the bladder into tissues close by. Bladder cancer may spread to lymph nodes nearby and others farther away. The cancer may reach the bones, the lungs, or the liver and other parts of the body.

When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes.

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What are the final stages of bladder cancer?

 · Cancer that starts in the bladder is called bladder cancer. It starts when cells in the bladder grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. For instance, cancer cells in the bladder can travel to the bone and grow there.

What are the chances of survival for bladder cancer?

 · As bladder cancer becomes more advanced, it spreads first to the muscular wall of the bladder, then into either the abdomen, pelvis, or local lymph nodes. When bladder cancer has become metastatic, it spreads to the lungs, bones, or liver.

What is the prognosis for Stage 1 bladder cancer?

The cancer has grown through the muscle layer of the bladder and into the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder (T3a or T3b). It might have spread into the prostate, seminal vesicles, uterus, or vagina, but it’s not growing into the pelvic or abdominal wall (T4a).

How does bladder cancer begin?

Stage II: The cancer has grown through the connective tissue in your bladder and into the muscle layer of the bladder. Stage III: Cancer is now in the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds your …

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What happens as bladder cancer progresses?

Bladder cancer gets worse when it grows into or through other layers of the bladder wall. Over time, the cancer may grow outside the bladder into tissues close by. Bladder cancer may spread to lymph nodes nearby and farther away. The cancer may reach the bones, the lungs, or the liver and other parts of the body.

Is bladder cancer slow or fast growing?

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

What are the signs that bladder cancer has spread?

The signs and symptoms of bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body include:tiredness or weakness.pain when urinating.difficulty urinating or inability to urinate.pain in the lower back on one side of the body.weight loss.swollen feet.bone pain.

Does bladder cancer come in stages?

There are 5 stages: stage 0 (zero) and stages I through IV (1 through 4). The stage provides a common way of describing the cancer, so doctors can work together to plan the best treatments. Staging can be clinical or pathological.

How do you feel when you have bladder cancer?

Pain or burning during urination. Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full. Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream. Having to get up to urinate many times during the night.

Can bladder cancer go undetected for years?

It may be seen as a symptom of post-menopausal bleeding, simple cystitis or a urinary tract infection. As a result, a bladder cancer diagnosis can be overlooked for a year or more.

What are the 5 warning signs of bladder cancer?

Here are five warning signs to watch for:Blood in the urine (hematuria). This is the most common early symptom of bladder cancer and typically the first sign of bladder cancer that is seen. … UTI-like symptoms. … Unexplained pain. … Decreased appetite. … Postmenopausal uterine bleeding.

Which of the following is usually the first symptom of bladder cancer?

For most people, the first symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, also called hematuria. Sometimes the blood is visible, prompting the patient to visit a doctor.

How long can you live with untreated bladder cancer?

The median overall survival was 8 months. On multivariable analysis, tumor stage at diagnosis, older age, increased comorbidity, later year of diagnosis, and female gender increased the risk of death. The cancer-specific survival was 11 months (12 months for men; 9 months for women).

How does bladder cancer affect the body?

This cancer affects deeper muscle layers of the bladder and maybe the fatty tissue around the bladder. Invasive bladder cancer is more likely to spread to nearby organs. These can include the kidneys, prostate gland (in men), and the uterus and vagina (in women). It may also spread to the lymph nodes.

What are the symptoms of stage 2 bladder cancer?

You might also have some discomfort or pain when you urinate. Symptoms of stage 2 bladder cancer may also include: frequent urination. feeling like you have to urinate even when you don’t.

Can bladder cancer symptoms come and go?

Symptoms often come and go, and are often not severe. The most common symptoms include the following: Hematuria (blood in the urine) — The most common sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine (hematuria).

Are most bladder cancers caught early?

Bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms that cause a person to see a health care provider. In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer.

Can bladder cancer symptoms come and go?

Symptoms often come and go, and are often not severe. The most common symptoms include the following: Hematuria (blood in the urine) — The most common sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine (hematuria).

Can you live 10 years with bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer survival rates by stage According to the American Cancer Society , the relative survival rates for all stages of bladder cancer are: 5 years: 77 percent. 10 years: 70 percent. 15 years: 65 percent.

Is a mass in the bladder always cancer?

Bladder tumors are abnormal growths that occur in the bladder. If the tumor is benign, it’s noncancerous and won’t spread to other parts of your body. This is in contrast to a tumor that’s malignant, which means it’s cancerous. There are several types of benign tumors that can develop within the bladder.

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How does bladder cancer affect survival?

The factors influencing survival include: 1 Age: Increasing age has been linked to a lower survival rate in people with bladder cancer. 7 2 Sex: A literature review of 27 studies and 23,754 patients found that women had a greater risk for disease recurrence following localized treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. 8 3 Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of recurrence and mortality in people with bladder cancer. 9 4 Recurrence: Recurrence of bladder cancer forebodes a poor prognosis, with a median survival of six months after recurrence. Although people with local recurrence have a slightly better prognosis, those with disease recurrence at local and distant sites perform very poorly.

How long does bladder cancer last?

While bladder cancer is relatively common, the average five-year survival rate is quite high at 76.9%. This rate has improved over the past several years, and a person’s chance of survival is influenced by many factors.

What is the bladder made of?

The bladder is flexible, being made of smooth muscle. It works to collect and then eliminate urine from your body. The bladder’s flexible walls are made perfectly to expand and contract as necessary to hold urine until it is expelled from the body. FatCamera / Getty Images.

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What is the difference between regional and distant cancer?

Regional means the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or organs and tissues, while distant refers to cancer that has metastasized to distant organs or lymph nodes. The earlier the cancer is found, the higher the chances of survival.

What is the survival rate for bladder cancer?

For bladder cancer, the five-year relative survival rate when the cancer is at the localized stage is 69.2%. 1. Five-Year Survival Rates by Stage for Bladder Cancer. Stage.

What is the prognosis of bladder cancer?

Prognosis describes how severe a person’s cancer is and their chances of survival. It is influenced by factors that are not reflected in the SEER survival statistics. Chief among them are the type, stage, and grade of bladder cancer. Other factors also contribute.

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What type of cancer is in the bladder?

The two most common types of cancer affecting the bladder are: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC): Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder starts in the bladder. In a study of 33,761 patients in Norway, transitional cell carcinoma accounted for 95% of bladder cancer cases. 2.

Bladder Cancer Grading

Doctors use a variety of tests to diagnose bladder cancer and determine its grade and stage. These include blood tests, imaging tests that look inside the body, and samples of the tumors called a bladder biopsy, usually taken during surgery.

The TNM System of Bladder Cancer Staging

The size of the tumor and whether it has spread are used to ascertain the stage. Cancer staging specifics are determined by guidelines set by the American Joint Committee on Cancer’s system, named the TNM staging system. 2

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Stage 0 Bladder Cancer

Stage zero bladder cancers are called noninvasive papillary carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. They’re precancerous lesions that could develop into more serious cancers if not treated. 3

Stage I Bladder Cancer

Stage I bladder cancers are cancerous tumors that have spread from the inner layer of the bladder into the connective tissue layer just under it. 3

Stage II Bladder Cancer

Stage II bladder cancer is also known as muscle-invasive bladder cancer. These tumors have spread into the muscular walls of the bladder. Stage II cancers are more likely to spread to other parts of the body. 3

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Stage III Bladder Cancer

Stage III bladder cancers have started to spread away from the bladder itself into either local or regional organs or into lymph nodes in the pelvis. It’s divided into stage IIIA and stage IIIB. 3

Stage IV Bladder Cancer

Stage IV cancer has metastasized or spread to major organs in other parts of the body. This is often called metastatic cancer. About 5% of bladder cancer cases are diagnosed after they’ve already spread to distant organs, according to SEER. 6

What is the stage of bladder cancer?

The stage of bladder cancer is based on the results of physical exams, biopsies, and imaging tests (CT or MRI scan, x-rays, etc.), which are described in Tests for Bladder Cancer, as well as the results of surgery .

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Where does bladder cancer grow?

The cancer has grown through the muscle layer of the bladder and into the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder (T3a or T3b). It might have spread into the prostate, seminal vesicles, uterus, or vagina, but it’s not growing into the pelvic or abdominal wall (T4a).

What is the stage of cancer?

This process is called staging. The stage of a cancer describes the extent (amount) of cancer in the body. It helps determine how serious the cancer is and how best to treat it. The stage is one of the most important factors in deciding how to treat the cancer and determining how successful treatment might be.

What is the earliest stage of cancer?

The earliest stage cancers are called stage 0 (or carcinoma in situ), and then range from stages I (1) through IV (4). As a rule, the lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher number, such as stage IV, means a more advanced cancer. And within a stage, an earlier letter means a lower stage.

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Is bladder cancer staging more accurate than clinical staging?

It’s based on the results of the physical exam, biopsy, imaging tests, and the results of surgery. This is likely to be more accurate than clinical staging, which only takes into account the tests done before surgery. Bladder cancer staging can be complex.

Is bladder cancer a flat tumor?

The cancer is a flat, non-invasive car cinoma (Tis), also known as flat carcinoma in situ (CIS). The cancer is growing in the inner lining layer of the bladder only. It has not grown inward toward the hollow part of the bladder, nor has it invaded the connective tissue or muscle of the bladder wall.

Does bladder cancer spread to lymph nodes?

The cancer has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0). II . T2a or T2b. N0. M0. The cancer has grown into the inner (T2a) or outer (T2b) muscle layer of the bladder wall, but it has not passed completely through the muscle to reach the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder.

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How does bladder cancer develop?

Bladder cancer develops when cells in the bladder begin to grow abnormally, forming a tumor in the bladder. Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do.

Can bladder cancer come back?

But even early-stage bladder cancers can come back after successful treatment. For this reason, people with bladder cancer typically need follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer that recurs.

Where is the bladder located?

Your kidneys, located in the rear portion of your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood. Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in …

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Where does bladder cancer start?

Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of your bladder. Urothelial cells are also found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) …

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: Blood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test. Frequent urination. Painful urination. Back pain.

What type of cancer is a bladder cancer?

Types of bladder cancer include: Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma , previously called transitional cell carcinoma, occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells expand when your bladder is full and contract when your bladder is empty.

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What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder — for instance, from an infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is rare in the United States.

What are the stages of bladder cancer?

There are two types of stages for bladder cancer — the clinical stage and the pathologic stage. The clinical stage is your doctor’s informed opinion of how far your cancer has spread. This is based on results of a number of tests, including physical exams, imaging tests like MRIs or CT scans, and biopsies. Your doctor will use this information …

Where is bladder cancer now?

Cancer is now in your lymph nodes or distant sites like your bones, liver, or lungs. The more information you have about the stage of your bladder cancer, the better able you’ll be to choose the right treatment option for you. Pagination. 1. 2.

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What is the clinical stage of cancer?

The clinical stage is your doctor’s informed opinion of how far your cancer has spread. This is based on results of a number of tests, including physical exams, imaging tests like MRIs or CT scans, and biopsies. Your doctor will use this information to plan your treatment. The pathologic stage is something your doctor determines after surgery …

What is the difference between stage 1 and stage 2 bladder cancer?

Stage I: The cancer has grown through the inner lining of your bladder, but not the muscle of your bladder wall. Nor has it spread to your lymph nodes or distant organs. Stage I I: The cancer has grown through the connective tissue in your bladder and into the muscle layer of the bladder.

Where does cancer spread?

The cancer has spread from your bladder into your pelvic or abdominal wall. But it hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or distant organs. The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. But it hasn’t reached distant organs. Cancer is now in your lymph nodes or distant sites like your bones, liver, or lungs.

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Does cancer spread to lymph nodes?

But it hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or distant organs. The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. But it hasn’t reached distant organs. Cancer is now in your lymph nodes or distant sites like your bones, liver, or lungs.

What is pathologic stage?

The pathologic stage is something your doctor determines after surgery to remove the cancer. They’ll look at previous test results. They’ll also examine what they found during surgery to give you an idea of how far your cancer has spread.

How long do people with bladder cancer live?

Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more . The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time. The physician often uses an overall five-year survival rate.

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.

What is SEER in cancer?

The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) stages are taken from the SEER database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute. SEER database groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages.

Is bladder cancer treatable?

Thus, bladder cancer, if detected in the early stage is treatable and has higher survival rates. However, if the cancer is detected in the advanced stages, treatment becomes difficult and the survival rate is low.

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What is the difference between high grade and low grade bladder cancer?

Low-grade cancers: Less aggressive cancers have a low chance of becoming high grade and do not require aggressive treatments, such as radiation or bladder removal.

Can a doctor remove a bladder tumor?

The physician may either remove the tumor or burn them down. Next, the physician places medications inside the bladder to prevent the recurrence of cancer. High-grade superficial tumors that tend to return once or twice after treatment are severe and require surgery to remove the bladder.

What is the procedure to remove bladder cancer?

Tumors in the bladder muscle: In case of bladder cancer that has invaded the muscle wall but hasn’t spread to the lymph nodes, the physician recommends radical cystectomy. In this procedure, the physician removes the bladder, nearby lymph nodes and other nearby organs.

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Can bladder cancer spread?

It depends: There are different types of bladder cancer. Some behave very aggressively while others do not. Generally, high grade (a microscopic feature) cancers are associated with high risk of larger tumors (high stage) which may spread and even be fatal. Low grade tumors typically do not spread outside of the bladder, though both kinds can often recur.

Can a low grade tumor spread outside the bladder?

Low grade tumors typically do not spread outside of the bladder, though both kinds can often recur. Ask U.S. doctors your own question and get educational, text answers — it’s anonymous and free! Doctors typically provide answers within 24 hours.

How long does it take for a tumor to recur?

Depends: It depends on the type of cancer and stage at the time sof diagnosis. If it is a non-aggressive form, it may take months or sometimes years to recur. If the tumor is very aggressive or advanced at the time of diagnosis, it is much more likely to recur quickly.

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How long does bladder cancer last?

The later you’re diagnosed and the farther the cancer has traveled, the less chance that your cancer will be cured. The 5-year survival rate is the rate of surviving for 5 years after a cancer diagnosis. For bladder cancer, if the cancer has spread to the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 36.3 percent. Trusted Source.

What is the most advanced stage of bladder cancer?

Being diagnosed with bladder cancer can be overwhelming, especially if it’s stage 4. Stage 4 bladder cancer is the most advanced stage and carries the worst prognosis. Many cancer treatments will be both difficult and challenging. However, treatment can reduce or even eliminate your symptoms and help you live a longer, more comfortable life.

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Symptoms of bladder cancer can include: blood or blood clots in your urine. pain or burning during urination. frequent urination. needing to urinate at night. needing to urinate but not being able to. lower back pain on one side of the body.

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What is stage 4 bladder cancer?

Stage 4 bladder cancer is also called metastatic bladder cancer. This means the cancer has spread outside of the bladder into other parts of the body. People with metastatic cancer may experience symptoms relating to where the cancer has spread.

What are the symptoms of metastatic cancer?

For example, if a person’s bladder cancer has spread to their lungs, they may experience chest pain or increased coughing.

What is the survival rate for bladder cancer?

The 5-year survival rate is the rate of surviving for 5 years after a cancer diagnosis. For bladder cancer, if the cancer has spread to the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 36.3 percent. Trusted Source.

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What is the name of the cancer that spreads from one side of the body to the other?

lower back pain on one side of the body. These symptoms commonly lead to a diagnosis, but they aren’t unique to stage 4 bladder cancer. Stage 4 bladder cancer is also called metastatic bladder cancer. This means the cancer has spread outside of the bladder into other parts of the body.

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