how to check bladder cancer

Contents

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Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include:
  1. Using a scope to examine the inside of your bladder (cystoscopy). …
  2. Removing a sample of tissue for testing (biopsy). …
  3. Examining a urine sample (urine cytology). …
  4. Imaging tests.
May 17, 2021

Common tests & procedures

Tests for Bladder Cancer Medical history and physical exam. Your doctor will want to get your medical history to learn more about your symptoms. Urine lab tests. This is a simple lab test to check for blood and other substances in a sample of …

What is the best test for bladder cancer?

Stages and Outlook (Prognosis) After a cancer diagnosis, staging provides important information about the extent (amount) of cancer in the body and the likely response to treatment. Bladder Cancer Stages. Survival Rates for Bladder Cancer.

How to recognize the signs of bladder cancer?

These tests often include: Urinalysis to observe the levels of protein, sugar and red and white blood cells in the urine, which can signal the… Urine cytology to look for abnormal cells in the urine under a microscope. Imaging such as an ultrasound, …

How bad is bladder cancer?

 · Physical exam: The doctor will check you for signs of bladder cancer and other health problems. This might include a rectal exam, during which a gloved finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, a pelvic exam might also be done. During these exams, the doctor can sometimes feel a bladder tumor.

What are the symptoms and signs of bladder cancer?

These include: UroVysion™: This test looks for chromosome changes that are often seen in bladder cancer cells. BTA tests: These tests look for a substance called bladder tumor-associated antigen (BTA), also known as CFHrp, in the… ImmunoCyt™: This test looks at cells in the urine for the presence …

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How do you confirm bladder cancer?

Cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is the key diagnostic procedure for bladder cancer. It allows the doctor to see inside the body with a thin, lighted, flexible tube called a cystoscope. Flexible cystoscopy is performed in a doctor’s office and does not require anesthesia, which is medication that blocks the awareness of pain.

Can bladder cancer be detected with a urine test?

Urinalysis can help find some bladder cancers early, but it has not been shown to be useful as a routine screening test. Urine cytology: In this test, a microscope is used to look for cancer cells in urine. Urine cytology does find some cancers, but it’s not reliable enough to make a good screening test.

How is bladder cancer detected early?

Watching for possible symptoms of bladder cancer No screening tests are recommended for people at average risk, but bladder cancer can be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms.

How does a urologist check for bladder cancer?

Cystoscopy. If bladder cancer is suspected, most doctors will recommend a cystoscopy. . A urologist uses a cystoscope, which is a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and a lens or a small video camera on the end.

Does bladder cancer feel like a UTI?

Bladder cancer can be mistaken for a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) because many of the symptoms overlap. Patients may experience increased frequency and urgency of urination, pain with urination, or urinary incontinence.

How painful is a cystoscopy?

People often worry that a cystoscopy will be painful, but it does not usually hurt. Tell your doctor or nurse if you feel any pain during it. It can be a bit uncomfortable and you may feel like you need to pee during the procedure, but this will only last a few minutes.

Do you feel ill with bladder cancer?

Nausea and vomiting. Burning or pain when you urinate, feeling the need to go often, or blood in urine. Diarrhea. Feeling tired.

Is bladder cancer curable?

Bladder cancer is highly treatable when it is diagnosed in the early stages. The main types of treatments for bladder cancer include: Surgery : Bladder cancer treatment almost always has a surgical component that may be combined with other non-invasive approaches, including those listed below.

Can I survive bladder cancer?

The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed. The 5-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 96%.

Can CT scan show bladder cancer?

A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to create three-dimensional, cross-sectional pictures of the bladder, as well as the ureters and kidneys. A CT scan may be used to see whether bladder cancer has invaded the bladder wall or has spread to other organs or nearby lymph nodes.

Is there pain with bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer can cause changes in urination. You might experience pain or a burning sensation when you urinate, and you may see blood in your urine. You may also feel: an urge to urinate more frequently than you used to.

Medical History and Physical Exam

Your doctor will want to get your medical history to learn more about your symptoms. The doctor might also ask about possible risk factors, includi…

Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TURBT)

If an abnormal area (or areas) is seen during a cystoscopy, it will be biopsied to see if it is cancer. A biopsy is the removal of small samples of…

Biopsies to Look For Cancer Spread

If imaging tests suggest the cancer might have spread outside of the bladder, a biopsy might be needed to be sure.In some cases, biopsy samples of…

How Does The Doctor Know I Have Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer might cause symptoms such as: 1. Having trouble peeing 2. Feeling pain when peeing 3. Needing to go more often than normal 4. Seeing…

Tests to Look For Bladder Cancer

Your doctor may do other tests to find out more about the cancer. Some of them are:X-ray: Dye is put into a vein for a special x-ray of the kidneys…

How Serious Is My Cancer?

If you have bladder cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called staging. Your doctor will want to find out the s…

What Kind of Treatment Will I Need?

There’s more than one way to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you. Doctors may have d…

What Will Happen After Treatment?

You will be glad when treatment is over. But it’s hard not to worry about cancer coming back. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry…

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Detection and Diagnosis

Finding cancer early, when it’s small and hasn’t spread, often allows for more treatment options. Some early cancers may have signs and symptoms that can be noticed, but that’s not always the case.

Stages and Outlook (Prognosis)

After a cancer diagnosis, staging provides important information about the extent (amount) of cancer in the body and the likely response to treatment.

Questions to Ask About Bladder Cancer

Here are some questions you can ask your cancer care team to help you better understand your cancer diagnosis and treatment options.

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How to diagnose bladder cancer?

Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include: Using a scope to examine the inside of your bladder (cystoscopy). To perform cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small , narrow tube (cystoscope) through your urethra. The cystoscope has a lens that allows your doctor to see the inside of your urethra and bladder, …

What tests can be done to determine if you have bladder cancer?

Tests may include: CT scan.

What is a cystoscope?

Cystoscopy allows your doctor to view your lower urinary tract to look for abnormalities, such as a bladder stone. Surgical tools can be passed through the cystoscope to treat certain urinary tract conditions.

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What is retrograde pyelogram?

Retrograde pyelogram is an X-ray exam used to get a detailed look at the upper urinary tract. During this test, your doctor threads a thin tube (catheter) through your urethra and into your bladder to inject contrast dye into your ureters. The dye then flows into your kidneys while X-ray images are captured.

How to get a follow up on bladder cancer?

Get a schedule of follow-up tests and go to each appointment. When you finish bladder cancer treatment, ask your doctor to create a personalized schedule of follow- up tests. Before each follow-up cystoscopy exam, expect to have some anxiety. You may fear that cancer has come back or worry about the uncomfortable exam.

How does radiation therapy help bladder cancer?

Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses beams of powerful energy, such as X-rays and protons, to destroy the cancer cells. Radiation therapy for bladder cancer usually is delivered from a machine that moves around your body, directing the energy beams to precise points.

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What is the procedure called when you remove a sample of tissue for testing?

Removing a sample of tissue for testing (biopsy). During cystoscopy, your doctor may pass a special tool through the scope and into your bladder to collect a cell sample (biopsy) for testing. This procedure is sometimes called transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). TURBT can also be used to treat bladder cancer.

What imaging is used to see the bladder?

Imaging such as an ultrasound, X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to view detailed images of the bladder.

Is Moffitt Cancer Center a urologic oncology center?

At Moffitt Cancer Center, we’re here to help. Our Urologic Oncology Program includes highly experienced physicians from multiple specialties who focus solely on diagnosing and treating bladder cancer. Whether you need diagnostic testing, a second opinion or comprehensive treatment and supportive care, our team can provide all the services you need under one roof. Moffitt also stands at the forefront of cancer research, offering a robust clinical trial program that allows eligible patients to receive the latest breakthroughs in bladder cancer treatment before they are made widely available.

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What is the best test to find out if you have bladder cancer?

Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to make pictures of the organs inside your body, like your bladder and kidneys. It can help show the size of a bladder cancer and if it has spread. Bone scan: A bone scan can help show if bladder cancer has spread to the bones. This test is not done unless you have bone pain.

What tests are done to check for bladder cancer?

This might include a rectal exam, during which a gloved finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, a pelvic exam might also be done.

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Signs of bladder cancer are problems peeing, pain when peeing, needing to go more often than normal, and seeing blood in your urine

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What is urine test?

Urine tests: For these tests, you’ll be asked to pee in a cup. Your urine is then tested for cancer cells, blood, or certain proteins (called tumor markers).

What is the blue light on a cystoscopy?

Blue light cystoscopy: Sometimes, special drugs are put into the bladder during the exam. Cancer cells soak up these drugs and then glow when the doctor shines a blue light through the scope. This can help the doctor see cancer cells that might have been missed with the normal light.

Why do you need a cystoscope?

More than one sample may be taken because sometimes cancer starts in more than one part of the bladder. Salt water washings of the inside of your bladder may also be collected to look for cancer cells.

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Where does urine go when you pee?

Urine flows through the ureters and into your bladder, where it’s stored. When you urinate (pee), the bladder squeezes the urine out through a tube called the urethra. Bladder cancer usually starts in the lining or inner layer of the bladder wall.

How to test for bladder cancer?

Urinalysis: One way to test for bladder cancer is to check for blood in the urine ( hematuria ). This can be done during a urinalysis, which is a simple test to check for blood and other substances in a sample of urine. This test is sometimes done as part of a general health check-up.

What is the best test to check for bladder cancer?

Urine cytology: In this test, a microscope is used to look for cancer cells in urine. Urine cytology does find some cancers, but it’s not reliable enough to make a good screening test. Urine tests for tumor markers: Newer tests look for certain substances in urine that might be a sign of bladder cancer. These include:

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Why do we need to do a bladder screening?

This is because no screening test has been shown to lower the risk of dying from bladder cancer in people who are at average risk.

What is UroVysion test?

UroVysion™: This test looks for chromosome changes that are often seen in bladder cancer cells.

What causes blood in urine?

This test is sometimes done as part of a general health check-up. Blood in the urine is usually caused by benign (non-cancer) problems, like infections, but it also can be the first sign of bladder cancer. Large amounts of blood in urine can be seen if the urine turns pink or red, but a urinalysis can find even small amounts.

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What is the test that looks for mucin in urine?

ImmunoCyt™: This test looks at cells in the urine for the presence of substances such as mucin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which are often found on cancer cells.

Can urine be found with cancer?

Large amounts of blood in urine can be seen if the urine turns pink or red, but a urinalysis can find even small amounts. Urinalysis can help find some bladder cancers early, but it has not been shown to be useful as a routine screening test. Urine cytology: In this test, a microscope is used to look for cancer cells in urine.

What imaging form is used to detect bladder tumors?

MRI is another imaging form that creates very high-quality and detailed images of bladder tumors in addition to adjacent organs, such as the chest, pelvis and abdomen, to locate any metastasis.

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What is the instrument used to see the bladder?

During the procedure, a specialized instrument called a cystoscope is passed through the urethra into the bladder. Cystoscopes are either rigid or flexible.

What is the purpose of an intravenous pyelogram?

Imaging tests may be used to locate blockages and tumors, and determine whether cancer has spread to other organs. An intravenous pyelogram is an imaging test during which the patient is injected with dye and the radiologist observes with an X-ray the movement of that dye through the urinary tract.

What happens if a urine culture fails?

If the urine culture fails to show abnormalities, a biopsy or other tests still may be ordered — especially if there are symptoms of concern.

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Can a urologist take a biopsy of a bladder tumor?

Occasionally, the urologist will take a biopsy during a transurethral resection of bladder tumor procedure, which will be scheduled for a future appointment. This is a minimally invasive procedure that does not involve making an incision in the body. The entire removal of a bladder-confined tumor can be accomplished through an operative scope, which passes through the urethra into the bladder.

What is the best test for bladder cancer?

Several types of urine test have an important role in the overall process of diagnosing bladder cancer. Among these tests, urine cytology and urine tumor marker tests are used to detect the presence or absence of bladder cancer. Urine cytology has been used to assist bladder cancer diagnosis for over 75 years and has well-established strengths and limitations which are discussed in more detail below. Molecular tumor marker tests such as Cxbladder have been more recently developed, and provide high diagnostic accuracy in both detection and rule-out.

How to collect urine samples?

Urine samples are usually obtained by spontaneous voiding, using the clean-catch, midstream urine collection method. This involves voiding the first portion of urine into the toilet, collecting the midstream portion into a clean container, then voiding the remaining portion into the toilet. This method greatly reduces the risk of contaminants entering the sample. Less commonly, an invasive method of urine collection, such as placement of a urinary catheter, may be required.

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What does it mean when you have abnormal urine?

Abnormal findings in a urine test can be characteristic of certain disease processes. For instance, persistently elevated protein in urine is a common early sign of chronic kidney disease, high levels of glucose may indicate diabetes, the detection of bacteria is often associated with a UTI, and the presence of red blood cells or abnormal cells may indicate bladder cancer.

What is the test used to detect RNA in urine?

In recent years there has been increasing use of molecular diagnostic tests to detect specific proteins or nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) in urine to diagnose diseases such as UTIs, prostatitis, or bladder cancer. Cxbladder, for example, measures the urine concentration of messenger RNA (mRNA) expressed by five biomarker genes to determine the presence or absence of bladder cancer.

What are the physical properties of urine?

Urine samples are routinely examined for physical properties (e.g., color, clarity, odor, density), chemical composition (e.g., pH, protein, glucose; commonly determined by a simple dipstick test) and microscopic appearance (e.g., the presence of cells, crystals, or bacteria). To detect bacteria, urine culture may also be performed, as described later.

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How to contact CXbladder?

Contact us by phone or email, or fill out an online form and a Cxbladder representative will get back to you.

How long does it take to collect urine?

However, depending on the purpose of the test, certain urine voids of the day (e.g., the first or second void) may be preferred. Collection of urine from all voids over a defined time period (usually over 8 or 24 hours) or sample collection at specific times after eating may also be necessary.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

Being unable to urinate. Lower back pain on one side. Loss of appetite and weight loss. Feeling tired or weak. Swelling in the feet. Bone pain. Again, many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than bladder cancer, but it’s important to have them checked.

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Why is bladder cancer so early?

Bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms that cause a person to see a health care provider.

Why does urine have blood in it?

More often it’s caused by other things like an infection, benign (not cancer) tumors, stones in the kidney or bladder, or other benign kidney diseases. Still, it’s important to have it checked by a doctor so the cause can be found.

How long does urine stay clear after bladder cancer?

Blood may be present one day and absent the next, with the urine remaining clear for weeks or even months. But if a person has bladder cancer, at some point the blood reappears.

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Can bladder cancer cause a change in urination?

Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as: Having to urinate more often than usual. Pain or burning during urination. Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full. Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream.

What happens when your bladder is full?

When your bladder is full of water, it stretches. This lets the doctor see your entire bladder wall. They’ll ask you how it feels when it’s full. The doctor takes tissue samples. If an area looks abnormal, the doctor will use the cystoscope to cut a small piece that they can send to the lab for analysis.

What is a cystoscopy?

A cystoscopy is a test to check the health of your urethra and bladder. You might also hear it called a cystourethroscopy or, more simply, a bladder scope. It’s an outpatient test, which means you can get it at your doctor’s office, a hospital, or clinic and go home the same day. The doctor inserts a tube into your urethra.

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How does a cystoscope work?

The cystoscope has a lens on the end that works like a telescope. It makes it easier for the doctor to see inside your body. They might put a video camera over the lens to project images onto a screen. The doctor fills your bladder. They put water or saline in through the cystoscope.

How does a doctor use a scope?

Your doctor inserts the scope. They’ll clean your urethra and numb the area. The scope goes through the urethra and into your bladder. They’ll use the smallest scope possible. They might need to use a bigger one to take samples or bring surgical tools into your bladder. The doctor examines your urethra and bladder.

Where is the urethra tube?

The doctor inserts a tube into your urethra. If you’re a man, the opening is at the end of your penis. If you’re a woman, it’s just above your vagina. The test lets your doctor check the complete length of your urethra and the bladder for polyps, narrow areas called strictures, abnormal growths, and other problems.

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Can cystoscopy be a complication?

Complications of cystoscopy are rare but can happen. The risks of having a cystoscopy include:

Diagnosis

Treatment

Clinical Trials

Medically reviewed by
Dr. Pawan Katti

Your provider may recommend one or more of these diagnostic tests and procedures as part of an evaluation.

Diagnosis involves certain tests and procedures to confirm the bladder cancer.

Common tests & procedures

Cystoscopy: A small, narrow tube with a lens is inserted through the urethra. This allows analyzing urethra and bladder for any signs of disease.

Urine cytology: To detect any presence of cancer cells.

Urogram: To evaluate the condition of kidneys, ureters and urinary tracts.

Retrograde Pyelogram: Provides an X-ray imaging of bladder, ureters, and kidney.

Bladder Biopsy: A sample tissue is collected from the bladder for further laboratory investigations.

Coping and Support

Preparing For Your Appointment

  • Diagnosing bladder cancer
    Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include: 1. Using a scope to examine the inside of your bladder (cystoscopy).To perform cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small, narrow tube (cystoscope) through your urethra. The cystoscope has a lens that allows your doct…
  • Determining the extent of the cancer
    After confirming that you have bladder cancer, your doctor may recommend additional tests to determine whether your cancer has spread to your lymph nodes or to other areas of your body. Tests may include: 1. CTscan 2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3. Positron emission tomog…

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