what causes bladder cancer in females

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While the exact cause of bladder cancer is not known, certain risk factors are linked to the disease, including tobacco smoking and exposure to certain chemicals and gases. Also, people with a family history of bladder cancer have a high risk of developing the disease.Feb 28, 2022

Symptoms

 · What are the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer? Blood or blood clots in the urine. Pain or burning sensation during urination. Frequent urination. Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night. Feeling the need to urinate but not being able to pass urine. Lower back pain on one side …

Causes

Researchers do not know exactly what causes most bladder cancers. But they have found some risk factors (see Bladder Cancer Risk Factors ) and are starting to understand how they cause cells in the bladder to become cancer. Certain changes in the DNA inside normal bladder cells can make them grow abnormally and form cancers.

Prevention

 · One reason for this disparity may be that in women, it’s easy to confuse signs and symptoms of bladder cancer — including blood in the urine (hematuria) — with other conditions or to attribute them to sources other than a serious disease. There are many reasons for hematuria in women, such as urinary tract infections and postmenopausal bleeding.

Complications

 · • Bladder cancer can affect women at any age. • Smoking is the greatest controllable risk factor. Smokers get bladder cancer twice as often as non-smokers. However, up to 50% of bladder cancer patients may have no history of smoking. Learn more about the risks associated with bladder cancer.

What are signs of female bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer in Women. Bladder cancer is usually treatable, but finding it early is vital. Bladder cancer can affect women at any age. One of the most common signs of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. Because early signs are often ignored, …

How dangerous is bladder cancer?

 · Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer in Women Certain factors increase your risk of developing bladder cancer. They include: 1. Smoking Smoking is the most common bladder cancer risk factor. Smokers are three times more likely to develop bladder cancer than non-smokers. Smoking is a causal factor in around half of all bladder cancers. 2.

What are the early warning signs of bladder cancer?

 · In bladder cancer, the infection with schistosomas is strongly associated with the risk of squamous carcinoma of the bladder, and there seem to be gender-specific differences in the prevalence of schistosoma infection ( 84 ). In addition, other pathogens inducing inflammatory reactions may have an impact on the risk of developing UCB.

What are the chances of dying from bladder cancer?

 · Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder caused by an infection or long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is more common in parts of the world where the parasitic infection, schistosomiasis, is a common cause of bladder infections.

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What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.

What are the signs of bladder cancer in a woman?

Bladder Cancer: Symptoms and SignsBlood or blood clots in the urine.Pain or burning sensation during urination.Frequent urination.Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night.Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to pass urine.Lower back pain on 1 side of the body.

How does a woman get bladder cancer?

Smoking is by far the greatest risk factor. Smokers get bladder cancer twice as often as non-smokers. Even ex-smokers are still at risk. Bladder cancer symptoms may be the same as those of a bladder infection.

Is Female bladder cancer serious?

It is important for women to understand their risks for bladder cancer and know what to ask their doctors. Awareness is the key: in most cases, bladder cancer is treatable, but prompt diagnosis is critical. Men are at a higher risk of developing bladder cancer.

What is usually the first symptom of bladder cancer?

In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer. There may be enough blood to change the color of the urine to orange, pink, or, less often, dark red.

Does bladder cancer spread quickly?

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

Who is prone to bladder cancer?

Though it can occur at any age, most people diagnosed with bladder cancer are older than 55. Being male. Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are. Exposure to certain chemicals.

What are the two greatest risk factors for bladder cancer?

Risk factors you can changeSmoking. Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer. … Workplace exposures. Certain industrial chemicals have been linked with bladder cancer. … Certain medicines or herbal supplements. … Arsenic in drinking water. … Not drinking enough fluids. … Race and ethnicity. … Age. … Gender.More items…•

How can bladder cancer be prevented?

Can Bladder Cancer Be Prevented?Don’t smoke. Smoking is thought to cause about half of all bladder cancers. … Limit exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace. Workers in industries that use certain organic chemicals have a higher risk of bladder cancer. … Drink plenty of liquids. … Eat lots of fruits and vegetables.

What is the life expectancy of someone with bladder cancer?

5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancerSEER Stage5-year Relative Survival RateIn situ alone Localized96% 70%Regional38%Distant6%All SEER stages combined77%Mar 1, 2022

Does bladder cancer run in families?

Some people inherit gene changes from their parents that increase their risk of bladder cancer. But bladder cancer does not often run in families, and inherited gene mutations are not thought to be a major cause of this disease.

Is bladder cancer usually caught early?

Bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms that cause a person to see a health care provider. In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer.

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How do bladder cancer mutations occur?

Some of these acquired gene mutations result from exposure to cancer-causing chemicals or radiation. For example, chemicals in tobacco smoke can be absorbed into the blood, filtered by the kidneys, and end up in urine, where they can affect bladder cells. Other chemicals may reach the bladder the same way. But sometimes, gene changes may just be random events that sometimes happen inside a cell, without having an outside cause.

What are the genes that cause bladder cancer?

Acquired changes in certain genes, such as the TP53 or RB1 tumor suppressor genes and the FGFR and RAS oncogenes , are thought to be important in the development of some bladder cancers. Changes in these and similar genes may also make some bladder cancers more likely to grow and spread into the bladder wall than others.

What are the genes that control cell division?

Some genes control when cells grow, divide into new cells, and die: 1 Genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes. 2 Genes that normally help control cell division, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

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What causes cancer cells to turn on oncogenes?

Cancers can be caused by DNA changes (gene mutations) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Several different gene changes are usually needed for a cell to become cancer.

Can you get bladder cancer from your parents?

Some people inherit gene changes from their parents that increase their risk of bladder cancer. But bladder cancer does not often run in families, and inherited gene mutations are not thought to be a major cause of this disease.

Why do we look like our parents?

We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA, but DNA affects more than just how we look . Some genes control when cells grow, divide into new cells, and die: Genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.

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Why are men more likely to get bladder cancer than women?

Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are. Exposure to certain chemicals. Your kidneys play a key role in filtering harmful chemicals from your bloodstream and moving them into your bladder. Because of this, it’s thought that being around certain chemicals may increase the risk of bladder cancer.

How does bladder cancer develop?

Bladder cancer develops when cells in the bladder begin to grow abnormally, forming a tumor in the bladder. Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do.

Where is the bladder located?

Your kidneys, located in the rear portion of your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood. Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in …

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Where does bladder cancer start?

Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of your bladder. Urothelial cells are also found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) …

Where is urothelial cancer found?

Urothelial cells are also found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) that connect the kidneys to the bladder. Urothelial cancer can happen in the kidneys and ureters, too, but it’s much more common in the bladder. Most bladder cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, when the cancer is highly treatable.

Can bladder cancer come back?

But even early-stage bladder cancers can come back after successful treatment. For this reason, people with bladder cancer typically need follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer that recurs.

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How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: Blood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test. Frequent urination. Painful urination. Back pain.

Is bladder cancer more prevalent in men?

Bladder cancer has long been considered a disease of older men. Though it is more prevalent in men, studies have shown that women are more likely to present more advanced tumors. Women often have a worse prognosis than men at almost every stage of the disease.

How to tell if you have bladder cancer?

Be sure to report them to your physician immediately. The most common sign—blood in the urine— can be visible (though it may sometimes appear dark brown or orange) but could also only be detected under a microscopic examination.

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Is bladder cancer treatable?

Awareness is the key: in most cases, bladder cancer is treatable, but prompt diagnosis is critical .

Is bladder cancer a manageable disease?

The good news is that in most cases, if caught early, bladder cancer is a manageable disease. There are tens of thousands of women bladder cancer survivors living today. Read their stories

Can bladder cancer be misdiagnosed?

Even after reporting the problem to their doctors, blood in the urin e may be initially misdiagnosed. It may be seen as a symptom of post-menopausal bleeding, simple cystitis or as a urinary tract infection. As a result, a bladder cancer diagnosis can be overlooked for a year or more.

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How many women have bladder cancer in 2016?

Bladder Cancer in Women. In 2016, about 18,000 women will be told they have bladder cancer. Your bladder is an organ in your pelvic area that holds urine. Most bladder cancers start in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. One of the first signs of bladder cancer is blood in the urine ( hematuria ).

Where does bladder cancer start?

Your bladder is an organ in your pelvic area that holds urine. Most bladder cancers start in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. One of the first signs of bladder cancer is blood in the urine ( hematuria ). Blood can either be seen with the naked eye (gross) or seen only under a microscope (microscopic).

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

One of the first signs of bladder cancer is blood in the urine ( hematuria ). Blood can either be seen with the naked eye (gross) or seen only under a microscope (microscopic). Many women ignore blood in their urine because they think it’s normal in females. Other signs of bladder cancer are frequent or painful passing of urine, back pain, …

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Why do women ignore blood in their urine?

Many women ignore blood in their urine because they think it’s normal in females. Other signs of bladder cancer are frequent or painful passing of urine, back pain, stomach pain and the feeling as if you need to go to the bathroom right away (urgency). Be sure to see a health care provider if you have any of these signs.

What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Based on the stage of the cancer and other factors, your treatment could include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or other therapies. What You Need to Know: Bladder cancer is usually treatable, but finding it early is vital. Bladder cancer can affect women at any age.

Is bladder cancer treatable?

What You Need to Know: Bladder cancer is usually treatable, but finding it early is vital. Bladder cancer can affect women at any age. One of the most common signs of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. Because early signs are often ignored, women have a higher chance of being told they have an advanced stage of bladder cancer than men.

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Can you get bladder cancer at any age?

Bladder cancer can affect women at any age. One of the most common signs of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. Because early signs are often ignored, women have a higher chance of being told they have an advanced stage of bladder cancer than men. Smoking is by far the greatest risk factor. Smokers get bladder cancer twice as often as non-smokers.

How does bladder cancer develop?

Bladder cancer develops when your healthy bladder lining cells begin changing and growing out of control, forming a tumor. Your bladder is a lower abdomen balloon-shaped organ near the pelvis. It stores your urine from your kidneys until the urine passes out of your body.

What is bladder cancer?

Your bladder is a lower abdomen balloon-shaped organ near the pelvis. It stores your urine from your kidneys until the urine passes out of your body.

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Where is the bladder located?

Your bladder is a lower abdomen balloon-shaped organ near the pelvis. It stores your urine from your kidneys until the urine passes out of your body. For the longest time, a common thought surrounding bladder cancer was that it was a disease only older men get.

How many people will die from bladder cancer in 2020?

For 2020 in the U.S., the American Cancer Society estimates are around 81,400 new bladder cancer cases (19,300 in women) and 17,980 deaths due to bladder cancer (4,930 women). If you develop bladder cancer once, you have a high risk of it coming back, therefore being monitored regularly is typically recommended every three to six months.

What is the most common form of bladder cancer?

1. Urothelial Carcinoma. Also referred to as transitional cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma is a very common form of cancer of the bladder. If you develop bladder cancer, it’s likely to be a urothelial carcinoma. The cancers begin in the urothelial cells lining the inside of your bladder.

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Where does bladder cancer start?

The cancers begin in the urothelial cells lining the inside of your bladder. Urothelial cells additionally line other areas of your urinary tract like your renal pelvis, urethra and ureters. Individuals with bladder cancer can, in some cases, develop tumors in these areas as well.

What percentage of bladder cancer is squamous cell carcinoma?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma. In the U.S., around 1 to 2 percent of bladder cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas. When you view the cells under a microscope, they look a lot like the flat cells found on your skin’s surface. Almost all the bladder’s squamous cell carcinomas are invasive.

What are the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer?

Many people with bladder cancer at first may have blood in their urine without pain while urinating. Most often, bladder cancer is diagnosed after a person finds blood in the urine. Several symptoms might indicate bladder cancer, such as fatigue, weight loss and bone tenderness. These can indicate more advanced disease. The common symptoms include

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Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes cause harmful chemicals to accumulate in the urine. These harmful chemicals may damage the lining of the bladder, increasing the risk of developing cancer. Other risk factors include

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The urinary bladder is a muscular sac in the pelvis, just above and behind the pubic bone. See a picture of the Bladder and learn more about the health topic.

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Medically reviewed by
Dr. Pawan Katti

Symptoms

If you or someone you know is exhibiting symptoms of Bladder cancer, seek medical attention immediately.

Symptoms include:

  • Blood in urine
  • Difficulty in urinating
  • Low back pain
  • Rapid weight loss
  • loss of appetite
  • Swollen feet
  • Extreme weakness and tiredness
Causes

  • A tumor develops when cells in the bladder grow unusually. Risk factors of bladder cancer include
  • Tobacco use
  • Smoking
  • A job involving exposure to chemicals
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Recurrent infections in the bladder
Prevention

In spite of the fact that there’s no ensured approach to prevent bladder cancer, a healthy lifestyle is recommended to minimize the risk

  • Avoid smoking
  • Consume fruits and vegetables which are rich in antioxidants
  • Adequate fluid intake to get rid of harmful chemicals that build up in the bladder
Complications

If untreated for a prolonged period it may lead to

  • Bladder cancers may spread into the close-by organs.
  • Affect pelvic lymph nodes and can spread to the liver, lungs, and bones
  • Anemia
  • Swelling of the urethras
  • Urethral stricture
  • Urinary incontinence

Causes and Risk Factors

Diagnosis

Disparity in Cases

Treatment

A Word from Verywell

  • Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to multiply rapidly and to go on living when healthy cells would die. The abnormal cells form a tumor that can invade and destroy normal body tissue. In time, the abnor…

See more on mayoclinic.org

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