what causes bladder cancer in males

Contents

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Symptoms

 · Bladder cancer in men takes place due to the accumulation and the increase of the normal cells located within it. In this situation, they continue to grow without any limitations and finally cause serious bladder problems. As the cells grow and gather, they form an area of abnormal cells, called a tumor, which can either be cancerous or benign.

Causes

Researchers do not know exactly what causes most bladder cancers. But they have found some risk factors (see Bladder Cancer Risk Factors ) and are starting to understand how they cause cells in the bladder to become cancer. Certain changes in the DNA inside normal bladder cells can make them grow abnormally and form cancers.

Prevention

 · Tobacco smoking: Tobacco smoke contains known carcinogens. Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer… Workplace exposures: Occupational exposure to carcinogens such as aromatic amines and certain hydrocarbons is also a… Arsenic: Drinking water containing high levels of …

Complications

What Causes Bladder Cancer? Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer. Other risk factors include— Having a family history of bladder cancer. Having certain gene mutations (unusual changes made when your body’s cells are dividing). Being exposed to too much of certain workplace chemicals

How dangerous is bladder cancer?

 · Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder mutate and grow out of control. These mutations change DNA directives, encouraging cells to multiply rapidly and to continue living when normal, unaffected, healthy cells would die. These cells form tumors that invade and harm body tissue.

What are the risk factors for bladder cancer?

 · These bladder problems in men can be symptoms of bladder cancer but are more often caused by other issues like a urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, enlarged prostate, or bladder stones. Advanced Stage Bladder Cancer Symptoms

What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

Chronic bladder irritation and infections Urinary infections, kidney and bladder stones, bladder catheters left in place a long time, and other causes of chronic (ongoing) bladder irritation have been linked to bladder cancer (especially squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder). But it’s not clear if they actually cause bladder cancer.

What are the symptoms of a bladder tumor?

 · researchers believe the increased prevalence of bladder cancer in those assigned male at birth may be due to differences in how carcinogens (cancer-causing substances) are metabolized before they pass through the bladder (where they can cause cellular damage). 6 or it may be that male sex hormones (androgens) promote tumor formation in the …

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What is the primary cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer. People who smoke are at least 3 times as likely to get bladder cancer as people who don’t. Smoking causes about half of all bladder cancers.

Who is at high risk for bladder cancer?

Age: Most people who get bladder cancer are older in age. The average age at diagnosis is 73, and 90 percent of patients are over age 55. Race: Bladder cancer is twice as common among Caucasians as African Americans. This disease is less common among Hispanics, Asians and Native Americans.

What are symptoms of bladder cancer in males?

Bladder Cancer: Symptoms and SignsBlood or blood clots in the urine.Pain or burning sensation during urination.Frequent urination.Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night.Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to pass urine.Lower back pain on 1 side of the body.

Is male bladder cancer curable?

Follow-up and outlook after treatment The outlook for people with stage 0a (non-invasive papillary) bladder cancer is very good. These cancers can be cured with treatment. During long-term follow-up care, more superficial cancers are often found in the bladder or in other parts of the urinary system.

How do you prevent bladder cancer?

Can Bladder Cancer Be Prevented?Don’t smoke. Smoking is thought to cause about half of all bladder cancers. … Limit exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace. Workers in industries that use certain organic chemicals have a higher risk of bladder cancer. … Drink plenty of liquids. … Eat lots of fruits and vegetables.

Does alcohol cause bladder cancer?

Conclusion: No significant association between alcohol consumption and bladder cancer risk was found in the entire population, but there was a linear dose-response relation in those who consume alcohol from liquor or spirits. Alcohol may elevate the risk of bladder cancer in males in a dose-independent way.

What are the 5 warning signs of prostate cancer?

Here are five potential warning signs of prostate cancer:A painful or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation.Frequent urination, particularly at night.Difficulty stopping or starting urination.Sudden erectile dysfunction.Blood in urine or semen.

What is the life expectancy of someone with bladder cancer?

5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancerSEER Stage5-year Relative Survival RateIn situ alone Localized96% 70%Regional38%Distant6%All SEER stages combined77%Mar 1, 2022

What are the symptoms of stage 1 bladder cancer?

SymptomsBlood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test.Frequent urination.Painful urination.Back pain.

How serious is bladder cancer in a male?

Bladder cancer is the fourth most common internal malignancy in American men; it is also one of the 10 deadliest cancers, and it saps our strapped economy of almost $3 billion a year.

Does bladder cancer spread fast?

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

Do you feel ill with bladder cancer?

Feeling weak or fatigued: You may feel lethargic and extremely tired a lot of the time. Bone pain: If your cancer has spread to the bone, it can cause bone pain or a bone fracture.

Can a 20 year old get bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer below the age of 20 years old is not only rare, with an approximated total of 125 cases being collected worldwide by 2010 but it has also been defined as clinico-pathologically distinct from bladder tumours in older age groups.

Is bladder cancer common in females?

While bladder cancer isn’t one of the most common cancers in women, about 18,000 women are diagnosed with bladder cancer every year in the United States (Source: CDC – Bladder Cancer).

Is bladder cancer more common in males or females?

Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer among men, and is almost three times more common in men than in women.

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How do bladder cancer mutations occur?

Some of these acquired gene mutations result from exposure to cancer-causing chemicals or radiation. For example, chemicals in tobacco smoke can be absorbed into the blood, filtered by the kidneys, and end up in urine, where they can affect bladder cells. Other chemicals may reach the bladder the same way. But sometimes, gene changes may just be random events that sometimes happen inside a cell, without having an outside cause.

What are the genes that cause bladder cancer?

Acquired changes in certain genes, such as the TP53 or RB1 tumor suppressor genes and the FGFR and RAS oncogenes , are thought to be important in the development of some bladder cancers. Changes in these and similar genes may also make some bladder cancers more likely to grow and spread into the bladder wall than others.

What causes cancer cells to turn on oncogenes?

Cancers can be caused by DNA changes (gene mutations) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Several different gene changes are usually needed for a cell to become cancer.

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Can bladder cancer cause cancer?

Researchers do not know exactly what causes most bladder cancers. But they have found some risk factors (see Bladder Cancer Risk Factors ) and are starting to understand how they cause cells in the bladder to become cancer. Certain changes in the DNA inside normal bladder cells can make them grow abnormally and form cancers.

Can bladder cancer be caused by inherited mutations?

Inherited gene mutations. Some people inherit gene changes from their parents that increase their risk of bladder cancer. But bladder cancer does not often run in families, and inherited gene mutations are not thought to be a major cause of this disease.

Why are men more likely to get bladder cancer than women?

Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are. Exposure to certain chemicals. Your kidneys play a key role in filtering harmful chemicals from your bloodstream and moving them into your bladder. Because of this, it’s thought that being around certain chemicals may increase the risk of bladder cancer.

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How does bladder cancer develop?

Bladder cancer develops when cells in the bladder begin to grow abnormally, forming a tumor in the bladder. Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do.

What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder — for instance, from an infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is rare in the United States.

What is the male urinary system?

Male urinary system. Your urinary system — which includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — removes waste from your body through urine. Your kidneys, located in the rear portion of your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood. Bladder cancer is a common type …

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What type of cancer is a bladder cancer?

Types of bladder cancer include: Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma , previously called transitional cell carcinoma, occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells expand when your bladder is full and contract when your bladder is empty.

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: Blood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test. Frequent urination. Painful urination. Back pain.

Where does bladder cancer start?

Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of your bladder. Urothelial cells are also found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) …

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What causes bladder cancer in men?

4 Carcinogens present in tobacco smoke and certain industrial chemicals are the major known causes of genetic mutations leading to bladder cancer, therefore higher rates of smoking and occupational exposure to chemicals are likely to partly account for the higher rate of bladder cancer in men. Other factors potentially associated with the increased bladder cancer risk in men are discussed below.

What are the factors that contribute to bladder cancer?

Several factors may play a role, both environmental and biological. Environmental: As previously mentioned, a higher rate of tobacco smoking in men is thought to be a major contributor to their higher risk of bladder cancer. 5 Men are also traditionally more likely to be employed in occupations associated with the production of paint, metal, …

How many times more likely is a smoker to get bladder cancer?

Compared with non-smokers, smokers are 3 to 4 times more likely to get bladder cancer 8. Workplace exposures: Occupational exposure to carcinogens such as aromatic amines and certain hydrocarbons is also a prominent bladder cancer risk factor. These chemicals are commonly used in the production of dyes, paint, metal, rubber, and petroleum products. …

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How many people will die from bladder cancer in 2020?

In the United States bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men. In 2020 it is estimated that bladder cancer will be diagnosed in 62,100 US men and cause death in 13,050 US men 3. Although the rate of bladder cancer in Australian and New Zealand men is approximately half that of North American men, it is still 4-fold higher than the rate in Australian/ NZ women. During 2018, 2,764 Australian/ NZ men were diagnosed with bladder cancer and 1,217 died from the disease. 2

What does it mean when you have blood in your urine?

Blood in the urine is the most common symptom of bladder cancer and often the first sign that is noticed. Depending on the quantity of blood present, urine may appear red, pink, or brownish in color. In the early stages of bladder cancer there is usually minimal or no associated pain.

Why does bladder cancer grow?

This disordered growth is caused by mutations in genes that control cell replication, repair, and programmed death.

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How old do you have to be to get bladder cancer?

Age: Bladder cancer predominantly affects older adults. In the United States, over 90% of people diagnosed with bladder cancer are 55 years and older.

Why do men get bladder cancer?

Like any cancer, bladder cancer is due to mutated cells that proliferate and form a tumor —in this case, in the bladder. For reasons not entirely understood, bladder cancer affects men three to four times more often than women, with nine out of 10 cases occurring over age 55. 7 The disease is more common in white than black men.

What mutations can cause bladder cancer?

Certain genetic mutations (particularly the FGFR3, RB1, HRAS, TP53, and TSC1 mutations ) may further predispose you to bladder cancer. 10

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What is the fourth leading malignancy in men?

What many people fail to realize is that another form— bladder cancer —is the fourth leading malignancy in men, far outpacing testicular cancer by a rate of about six to one.

What is the gold standard for bladder cancer?

The gold standard for diagnosis of bladder cancer is cystoscopy. 12 The direct viewing technique is performed under local anesthesia to numb the urethra (the tube through which urine exits the body).

What is the underlying layer of bladder cancer called?

4  Those that involve the underlying layer of cells, called the lamina propria, are referred to as non-muscle invasive carcinoma. Those that penetrate even deeper into the muscles of the bladder wall are classified as invasive carcinomas.

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What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

By far the most common bladder cancer in the United States is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also known as urothelial carcinoma. 3  This type is limited to the innermost lining of the bladder (known as the transitional epithelium). Because the transitional epithelium is only a few cells thick, catching cancer at this early stage—when it is considered non-invasive—translates to high rates of treatment success.

How long can you live with bladder cancer?

Many people treated for bladder cancer will go on to live long, healthy lives well in excess of 15 years. 18 .

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

What Are the Symptoms of Bladder Cancer? 1 Blood in the urine. This is the most common symptom. 2 Having to urinate often. 3 Pain while urinating. 4 Back pain. 5 Pelvic pain.

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Where is the bladder located?

The bladder (sometimes called the urinary bladder) is a balloon-shaped organ in your lower abdomen, near the pelvis. It stores urine from the kidneys until it is passed out of the body.

Is smoking a risk factor for bladder cancer?

Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer. Other risk factors include—

How to combat bladder cancer?

Avoid Smoking – Research into the link between the differences in bladder cancer risks between men and women due to smoking is as of yet inclusive but it has been found. Stopping smoking, or not ever starting smoking or using e-cigarettes, remains a catch-all method for reducing health risks of all kinds.

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How does bladder cancer spread?

Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder mutate and grow out of control. These mutations change DNA directives, encouraging cells to multiply rapidly and to continue living when normal, unaffected, healthy cells would die. These cells form tumors that invade and harm body tissue. When left untreated, these cells can spread throughout …

What is bladder cancer advocacy?

Comprehensive considers the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network a valuable resource, for the bladder cancer community of patients, caregivers, survivors, advocates, medical and research professionals to unite in support of people touched by bladder cancer. Since its founding in 2005, BCAN has been on the frontlines advocating for greater public awareness and increased funding for research to identify effective treatments and eventually, a cure.

What is the number to call for bladder cancer?

Be sure to pay attention to risk factors, and take charge of your health, not only just during Bladder Cancer Awareness month, but all year long. To schedule an appointment with Comprehensive, please call 702-952-3350.

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When is bladder cancer awareness month?

Bladder Cancer Awareness Month was first recognized by the U.S. Congress in May 2015 as a Senate Resolution sponsored by Sen. Robert Menendez, and was the result of hard work by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) to bring more attention to the disease. BCAN has been organizing the annual Walk for Bladder Cancer event since May 2011, with 2021’s walk being held, nationwide, on May 1.

What are the chemicals that men are exposed to?

This includes being around chemicals including arsenic as well as elements used in the manufacturing and use of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products.

Can you have bladder cancer if you have blood relatives?

Know and Share Family History – If blood relatives have had bladder cancer, an individual’s risk for the cancer is elevated. If this is the case, be sure to make your physician aware and start screening as soon as is recommended to find cancer as soon as possible, if it presents.

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Why do people with bladder cancer have a higher risk of getting it themselves?

Sometimes this may be because the family members are exposed to the same cancer-causing chemicals (like those in tobacco smoke). They may also share changes in some genes (like GST and NAT) that make it hard for their bodies to break down certain toxins, which can make them more likely to get bladder cancer.

What are the risk factors for bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer Risk Factors. A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. You can change some risk factors, like smoking or weight ; others, like your age or family history, you can’t. But having a risk factor, or even many, …

What chemicals can cause bladder cancer?

Certain industrial chemicals have been linked with bladder cancer. Chemicals called aromatic amines, such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine, which are sometimes used in the dye industry, can cause bladder cancer. Workers in other industries that use certain organic chemicals also may have a higher risk of bladder cancer.

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Why is it important to know about bladder cancer?

Still, it’s important to know about the risk factors for bladder cancer because there may be things you can do that might lower your risk of getting it. If you’re at higher risk because of certain factors, you might be helped by tests that could find it early, when treatment is most likely to be effective. Many risk factors make a person more …

What is the cause of cowden disease?

Cowden disease, caused by mutations in the PTEN gene, is linked mainly to cancers of the breast and thyroid. People with this disease also have a higher risk of bladder cancer.

Can bladder cancer be caused by a birth defect?

Another rare birth defect called exstrophy greatly increases a person’s risk of bladder cancer. In bladder exstrophy, both the bladder and the abdominal wall in front of the bladder don’t close completely during fetal development and are fused together. This leaves the inner lining of the bladder exposed outside the body. Surgery soon after birth can close the bladder and abdominal wall (and repair other related defects), but people who have this still have a higher risk for urinary infections and bladder cancer.

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Where can urothelium cancer be found?

Urothelial carcinomas can sometimes form in different areas in the bladder, as well as in the lining of the kidney, the ureters, and urethra. Having cancer in the lining of any part of the urinary tract puts you at higher risk of having another cancer, either in the same spot as before, or in another part of the urinary tract. This is true even when the first tumor is removed completely. For this reason, people who have had bladder cancer need careful follow-up to look for new cancers.

Early Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

In the earliest stages of bladder cancer, most people do not have symptoms. When early symptoms do occur, they can have many other potential causes that are more likely than bladder cancer. Early symptoms include:

Later Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

Other symptoms are much less common or may occur later during bladder cancer. Some of these symptoms may be due to the spread of a bladder cancer to other regions of the body, and include: 4

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Bladder Cancer in Men vs. Women

Bladder cancer is 3 to 4 times more common in people assigned male at birth than in people assigned female at birth. 5

Complications

There are very few complications during the earliest stages of bladder cancer. These may include: 4

When to See a Healthcare Provider

There are currently no guidelines or recommendations for screening people at risk of bladder cancer, including those who have significant risk factors. Clinical trials are ongoing to see if screening may detect bladder cancer early in some populations. 9

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Summary

The most common early symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. The blood either may be visible to the naked eye or only able to be seen under a microscope. Other common symptoms include painful urination, increased frequency or urgency to urinate, needing to urinate in the middle of the night, and pain in one side of the lower back.

A Word From Verywell

Catching bladder cancer in the earliest stages greatly increases your chance for a cure.

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