what does bladder cancer do

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Overview. Bladder cancer occurs when there are abnormal, cancerous cells growing uncontrollably in the lining of the bladder, which is the hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. These cancerous cells begin to affect the normal function of the bladder and can spread to surrounding organs.

What is the latest treatment for bladder cancer?

 · Cancer that starts in the bladder is called bladder cancer. It starts when cells in the bladder grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. For instance, cancer cells in the bladder can travel to the bone and grow there.

What is the death rate of bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as: Having to urinate more often than usual Pain or burning during urination Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream Having to get up to urinate …

How can urine tests detect bladder cancer?

When the cancer has invaded the muscle, radical cystectomy (removal of the bladder) is the standard treatment. Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients.

What is the diagnosis for bladder cancer?

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the bladder, it is called bladder cancer. Each year in the United States, about 56,000 men and 17,500 women get bladder cancer, and about 12,000 men and 4,700 women die from the disease.

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Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: Bladder Cancer Surgery. Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer.

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What happens to your body when you have bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as: Having to urinate more often than usual. Pain or burning during urination. Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full.

Is cancer in the bladder fatal?

It also affects females. In 2019, the American Cancer Society (ACS) predict that around 80,470 people will receive a diagnosis of bladder cancer and 17,670 will die from it in the United States. Bladder cancer can be benign or malignant. Malignant bladder cancer may be life threatening, as it can spread quickly.

What organs does bladder cancer affect?

This cancer affects deeper muscle layers of the bladder and maybe the fatty tissue around the bladder. Invasive bladder cancer is more likely to spread to nearby organs. These can include the kidneys, prostate gland (in men), and the uterus and vagina (in women). It may also spread to the lymph nodes.

What symptoms do you get with bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer: Symptoms and SignsBlood or blood clots in the urine.Pain or burning sensation during urination.Frequent urination.Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night.Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to pass urine.Lower back pain on 1 side of the body.

Do you feel ill with bladder cancer?

Nausea and vomiting. Burning or pain when you urinate, feeling the need to go often, or blood in urine. Diarrhea. Feeling tired.

Can you live without a bladder?

It can affect your body image, and you may worry about its impact on your relationships and sex life. With enough time, you should be able to do almost everything you did before. Even if you now use a urostomy bag (to collect your urine), you can go back to work, exercise, and swim.

Where does bladder cancer spread first?

When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes.

What is the number one cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer. People who smoke are at least 3 times as likely to get bladder cancer as people who don’t. Smoking causes about half of all bladder cancers.

Is bladder cancer a silent killer?

Bladder cancer is the most expensive cancer to treat, and it has a reputation for being a silent killer. As with most cancers, awareness and early detection are critical in saving lives. According to Bladder Cancer Canada, about 120,000 people will be diagnosed with bladder cancer this year alone.

What are the symptoms of stage 1 bladder cancer?

SymptomsBlood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test.Frequent urination.Painful urination.Back pain.

Can you survive bladder cancer?

The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed. The 5-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 96%.

Is bladder cancer curable?

Bladder cancer is highly treatable when it is diagnosed in the early stages. The main types of treatments for bladder cancer include: Surgery : Bladder cancer treatment almost always has a surgical component that may be combined with other non-invasive approaches, including those listed below.

How Does The Doctor Know I Have Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer might cause symptoms such as: 1. Having trouble peeing 2. Feeling pain when peeing 3. Needing to go more often than normal 4. Seeing…

Tests to Look For Bladder Cancer

Your doctor may do other tests to find out more about the cancer. Some of them are:X-ray: Dye is put into a vein for a special x-ray of the kidneys…

How Serious Is My Cancer?

If you have bladder cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called staging. Your doctor will want to find out the s…

What Kind of Treatment Will I Need?

There’s more than one way to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you. Doctors may have d…

What Will Happen After Treatment?

You will be glad when treatment is over. But it’s hard not to worry about cancer coming back. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry…

Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis). In either case, the cancer has not inv…

Treating Stage I Bladder Cancer

Stage I bladder cancers have grown into the connective tissue layer of the bladder wall but have not reached the muscle layer.Transurethral resecti…

Treating Stage II Bladder Cancer

These cancers have invaded the muscle layer of the bladder wall. Transurethral resection (TURBT) is typically the first treatment for these cancers…

Treating Stage III Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs.Transurethral resection (TURBT) is typical…

Treating Stage IV Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the abdominal or pelvic wall (T4b tumors) or have spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. Stage IV ca…

Treating Bladder Cancer That Progresses Or Recurs

If cancer continues to grow during treatment (progresses) or comes back (recurs), your treatment options will depend on where and how much the canc…

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Immunotherapy is treatment that boosts your immune system to attack the cancer cells. Different types of immunotherapy can be used to treat bladder cancer. These drugs can be put right into the bladder (as a liquid) or given into a vein.

Can chemo be used for bladder cancer?

For early-stage bladder cancers, chemo may be used: Before surgery to shrink a tumor. After surgery to kill any cancer cells that remain. With radiation to help it work better. Chemo is usually the main treatment for advanced bladder cancers, such as those that have spread to other parts of the body.

Where does cancer start?

Cancer can start any place in the body. Cancer that starts in the bladder is called bladder cancer. It starts when cells in the bladder grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body.

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What is it called when cancer spreads to the bone?

For instance, cancer cells in the bladder can travel to the bone and grow there. When cancer cells spread, it’s called metastasis . Cancer is always named for the place where it starts. So when bladder cancer spreads to the bone (or any other place), it’s still called bladder cancer.

What is the tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder?

Tubes called ureters connect your kidneys to the bladder. Urine flows through the ureters and into your bladder, where it’s stored. When you urinate (pee), the bladder squeezes the urine out through a tube called the urethra. Bladder cancer usually starts in the lining or inner layer of the bladder wall.

What tests are done to check for bladder cancer?

This might include a rectal exam, during which a gloved finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, a pelvic exam might also be done.

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What is the test for cancer?

Urine tests: For these tests, you’ll be asked to pee in a cup. Your urine is then tested for cancer cells, blood, or certain proteins (called tumor markers). Cystoscopy: For this exam, a doctor called a urologist looks at the inside of your bladder using a tool called a cystoscope.

What type of cancer is a bladder cancer?

Less than 1% of bladder cancers are small-cell carcinomas. They start in nerve-like cells called neuroendocrine cells. These cancers often grow quickly and usually need to be treated with chemotherapy like that used for small cell carcinoma of the lung.

Where does bladder cancer start?

Most bladder cancers start in the innermost lining of the bladder, which is called the urothelium or transitional epithelium. As the cancer grows into or through the other layers in the bladder wall, it has a higher stage, becomes more advanced, and can be harder to treat. Over time, the cancer might grow outside the bladder …

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Where does cancer spread?

(To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer?) The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower pelvis. It has flexible, muscular walls that can stretch to hold urine and squeeze to send it out of the body.

What is the function of the bladder?

It has flexible, muscular walls that can stretch to hold urine and squeeze to send it out of the body. The bladder’s main job is to store urine. Urine is liquid waste made by the 2 kidneys and then carried to the bladder through 2 tubes called ureters.

What is the job of the bladder?

The bladder’s main job is to store urine. Urine is liquid waste made by the 2 kidneys and then carried to the bladder through 2 tubes called ureters. When you urinate, the muscles in the bladder contract, and urine is forced out of the bladder through a tube called the urethra.

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What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

Urothelial carcinoma, also known as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is by far the most common type of bladder cancer. In fact, if you have bladder cancer it’s almost certain to be a urothelial carcinoma. These cancers start in the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder.

Can bladder cancer be treated with chemotherapy?

These less common types of bladder cancer (other than sarcoma) are treated a lot like TCCs, especially early-stage tumors, but if chemotherapy is needed, different drugs might be used.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

Being unable to urinate. Lower back pain on one side. Loss of appetite and weight loss. Feeling tired or weak. Swelling in the feet. Bone pain. Again, many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than bladder cancer, but it’s important to have them checked.

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How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Bladder cancers that have grown large or have spread to other parts of the body can sometimes cause other symptoms, such as: Being unable to urinate. Lower back pain on one side. Loss of appetite and weight loss. Feeling tired or weak.

Can bladder cancer cause bleeding?

Usually, the early stages of bladder cancer (when it’s small and only in the bladder) cause bleeding but little or no pain or other symptoms. Blood in the urine doesn’t always mean you have bladder cancer.

Can bladder cancer spread to other parts of the body?

Bladder cancers that have grown large or have spread to other parts of the body can sometimes cause other symptoms, such as: Again, many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than bladder cancer, but it’s important to have them checked.

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Can bladder cancer cause lower back pain?

Bladder cancers that have grown large or have spread to other parts of the body can sometimes cause other symptoms, such as: Being unable to urinate. Lower back pain on one side. Loss of appetite and weight loss. Feeling tired or weak.

What does it mean when you have blood in your urine?

Blood in the urine. In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer. There may be enough blood to change the color of the urine to orange, pink, or, less often, dark red.

Why do I have trouble peeing?

Having to get up to urinate many times during the night. These symptoms are more likely to be caused by a urinary tract infection (UTI), bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or an enlarged prostate (in men).

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What is the first treatment for bladder cancer?

Chemo (with or without radiation) is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body (M1). After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done.

Can bladder cancer be cured?

The outlook for people with stage 0a (non-invasive papillary) bladder cancer is very good. These cancers can be cured with treatment. During long-term follow-up care, more superficial cancers are often found in the bladder or in other parts of the urinary system.

What are the factors that affect cancer treatment?

Other factors, such as the size of the tumor, how fast the cancer cells are growing (grade), and a person’s overall health and preferences, also affect treatment options.

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What is stage 0 bladder cancer?

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis or carcinoma in situ). In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded (spread deeper into) the bladder wall.

Can stage IV cancer spread to lymph nodes?

These cancers have reached the pelvic or abdominal wall (T4b), may have spread to nearby lymph nodes (any N), and/or have spread to distant parts of the body (M1). Stage IV cancers are very hard to get rid of completely.

How to get rid of stage IV cancer?

The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options.

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Does cancer grow back after treatment?

If cancer continues to grow during treatment (progresses) or comes back after treatment (recurs), treatment options will depend on where and how much the cancer has spread, what treatments have already been used, and the patient’s overall health and desire for more treatment.

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

What Are the Symptoms of Bladder Cancer? 1 Blood in the urine. This is the most common symptom. 2 Having to urinate often. 3 Pain while urinating. 4 Back pain. 5 Pelvic pain.

What is the data visualization tool?

The Data Visualizations tool makes it easy for anyone to explore and use the latest official federal government cancer data from United States Cancer Statistics. It includes the latest cancer data covering the U.S. population.

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: Bladder Cancer Surgery. Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer.

Can bladder cancer be removed?

Surgery, alone or with other treatments, is used to treat most bladder cancers. Early-stage bladder tumors can often be removed. But a major concern in people with early-stage bladder cancer is that new cancers often form in other parts of the bladder over time.

What kind of doctor treats cancer?

Based on your treatment options, you might have different types of doctors on your treatment team. These doctors could include: 1 Urologists: surgeons who specialize in treating diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system 2 Radiation oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with radiation therapy 3 Medical oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy

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How to decide on cancer treatment?

It’s important to discuss all of your treatment options, including their goals and possible side effects, with your doctors to help make the decision that best fits your needs. Some important things to consider include: 1 Your age and expected life span 2 Any other serious health conditions you have 3 The stage and grade of your cancer 4 The likelihood that treatment will cure your cancer (or help in some other way) 5 Your feelings about the possible side effects from treatment

What do people with cancer need?

People with cancer need support and information, no matter what stage of illness they may be in. Knowing all of your options and finding the resources you need will help you make informed decisions about your care.

What is the number to call for cancer treatment?

Call our National Cancer Information Center at 1-800-227-2345 and speak with one of our trained specialists. Palliative Care. Find Support Programs and Services in Your Area.

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Is treatment information given here official policy of the American Cancer Society?

The treatment information given here is not official policy of the American Cancer Society and is not intended as medical advice to replace the expertise and judgment of your cancer care team. It is intended to help you and your family make informed decisions, together with your doctor.

Can bladder cancer cause pain?

People with bladder cancer may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, people with bladder cancer do not have any of these changes. Or, the cause of a symptom may be a different medical condition that is not cancer. Blood or blood clots in the urine. Pain or burning sensation during urination.

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer: Symptoms and Signs 1 Blood or blood clots in the urine 2 Pain or burning sensation during urination 3 Frequent urination 4 Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night 5 Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to pass urine 6 Lower back pain on 1 side of the body

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Can hematuria be diagnosed with bladder cancer?

General urine tests are not used to make a specific diagnosis of bladder cancer because hematuria can be a sign of several other conditions that are not cancer, such as an infection or kidney stones.

Can bladder cancer spread to other parts of the body?

Sometimes when the first symptoms of bladder cancer appear, the cancer has already spread to another part of the body. In this situation, the symptoms depend on where the cancer has spread. For example, cancer that has spread to the lungs may cause a cough or shortness of breath, spread to the liver may cause abdominal pain or jaundice …

Can cancer cause shortness of breath?

For example, cancer that has spread to the lungs may cause a cough or shortness of breath, spread to the liver may cause abdominal pain or jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), and spread to the bone may cause bone pain or a fracture (broken bone).

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How do bladder cancer mutations occur?

Some of these acquired gene mutations result from exposure to cancer-causing chemicals or radiation. For example, chemicals in tobacco smoke can be absorbed into the blood, filtered by the kidneys, and end up in urine, where they can affect bladder cells. Other chemicals may reach the bladder the same way. But sometimes, gene changes may just be random events that sometimes happen inside a cell, without having an outside cause.

What are the genes that cause bladder cancer?

Acquired changes in certain genes, such as the TP53 or RB1 tumor suppressor genes and the FGFR and RAS oncogenes , are thought to be important in the development of some bladder cancers. Changes in these and similar genes may also make some bladder cancers more likely to grow and spread into the bladder wall than others.

What are the genes that control cell division?

Some genes control when cells grow, divide into new cells, and die: 1 Genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes. 2 Genes that normally help control cell division, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

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What causes cancer cells to turn on oncogenes?

Cancers can be caused by DNA changes (gene mutations) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Several different gene changes are usually needed for a cell to become cancer.

Can you get bladder cancer from your parents?

Some people inherit gene changes from their parents that increase their risk of bladder cancer. But bladder cancer does not often run in families, and inherited gene mutations are not thought to be a major cause of this disease.

Why do we look like our parents?

We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA, but DNA affects more than just how we look . Some genes control when cells grow, divide into new cells, and die: Genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.

Is bladder cancer treatable?

Thus, bladder cancer, if detected in the early stage is treatable and has higher survival rates. However, if the cancer is detected in the advanced stages, treatment becomes difficult and the survival rate is low.

How long do people with bladder cancer live?

Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more . The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time. The physician often uses an overall five-year survival rate.

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What is SEER in cancer?

The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) stages are taken from the SEER database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute. SEER database groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages.

What is the difference between high grade and low grade bladder cancer?

Low-grade cancers: Less aggressive cancers have a low chance of becoming high grade and do not require aggressive treatments, such as radiation or bladder removal.

What is the procedure to remove bladder cancer?

Tumors in the bladder muscle: In case of bladder cancer that has invaded the muscle wall but hasn’t spread to the lymph nodes, the physician recommends radical cystectomy. In this procedure, the physician removes the bladder, nearby lymph nodes and other nearby organs.

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What is the first line of treatment for metastatic bladder cancer?

Then, the physician may perform a radical cystectomy to remove cancer that has invaded beyond the bladder wall. Metastatic bladder cancer: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first line of treatment for this type of bladder cancer.

Types of Bladder Cancer

Medically reviewed by
Dr. Pawan Katti

A common type of cancer, which develops in the urinary bladder. This causes back pain, painful urination, frequent urination, and blood in urine.

Condition Highlight
Urgent medical attention is usually recommended by healthcare providers
Condition Highlight
May be dangerous or life threatening
How common is condition?
Rare (Fewer than 200,000 cases per year in US)
Is condition treatable?
Treatable by a medical professional
Does diagnosis require lab test or imaging?
Requires lab test or imaging
Time taken for recovery
Can last several months
Condition Highlight
Common for ages 35-50
Condition Highlight
More common in males
Condition Highlight
Family history may increase likelihood

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Other Types of Bladder Cancer

Start and Spread of Bladder Cancer

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