what is the treatment for stage 1 bladder cancer

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Treatment of stage I bladder cancer may include:

  • Transurethral resection (TUR) with fulguration
  • TUR with fulguration followed by intravesical biologic therapy or chemotherapy
  • Segmental or radical cystectomy
  • Radiation implants with or without external radiation therapy.

Stage I bladder cancers have grown into the connective tissue layer of the bladder wall (T1), but have not reached the muscle layer. Transurethral resection (TURBT) with fulguration is usually the first treatment for these cancers. But it’s done to help determine the extent of the cancer rather than to try to cure it.Sep 20, 2021

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Answer

What is treatment for high grade bladder cancer?

Stage I bladder cancers have grown into the connective tissue layer of the bladder wall (T1), but have not reached the muscle layer. Transurethral resection (TURBT) with fulguration is usually the first treatment for these cancers. But it’s done to help determine the extent of the cancer rather than to try to cure it.

What is the cure for bladder cancer?

 · Stage I bladder cancers stay in situ upto mucosa and connective tissue layer of the bladder wall. However, they have not spread to the muscle layer. Usually, transurethral resection (TURBT) with cystoscopy is the first treatment for these cancers. However, it helps determine the extent of the cancer and is part of cure as well.

What is the recovery time for bladder cancer surgery?

In general, the main treatment options for bladder cancer are: Surgery Chemotherapy Immunotherapy (local and systemic) Targeted therapy Radiation therapy

What is Grade 2 bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer Surgery. Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer.

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What is the best treatment for T1 bladder cancer?

Intravesical BCG therapy for high-grade T1 BCG instillation into bladder is the gold standard for conservative treatment for high-grade T1 disease.

How long can you live with stage 1 bladder cancer?

Among people diagnosed with localized bladder cancer (sometimes called Stage 1) in the United State, the average five-year survival rate is around 70%. This five-year survival rate means that on average, around 70 out of 100 people diagnosed at that stage are alive five years after being diagnosed.

Is Stage 1 bladder cancer treatable?

Stage I bladder cancers have grown into the connective tissue layer of the bladder wall (T1), but have not reached the muscle layer. Transurethral resection (TURBT) with fulguration is usually the first treatment for these cancers. But it’s done to help determine the extent of the cancer rather than to try to cure it.

Is bladder cancer treatable if caught early?

Bladder cancer is usually treatable when caught at an early stage but more challenging to address when found later. Recurrence also poses a risk, even with early-stage tumors, so regular surveillance is essential following treatment or surgery.

Can you live a long life with bladder cancer?

The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed. The 5-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 96%.

How fast does bladder cancer progress?

As many as 50% of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer may have occult metastases that become clinically apparent within 5 years of initial diagnosis and around 5% will have distant metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis. Most patients with overt metastatic disease die within 2 years despite chemotherapy.

Can you have bladder cancer for years and not know it?

It may be seen as a symptom of post-menopausal bleeding, simple cystitis or a urinary tract infection. As a result, a bladder cancer diagnosis can be overlooked for a year or more.

What are the symptoms of stage 1 bladder cancer?

SymptomsBlood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test.Frequent urination.Painful urination.Back pain.

Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis). In either case, the cancer has not inv…

Treating Stage I Bladder Cancer

Stage I bladder cancers have grown into the connective tissue layer of the bladder wall but have not reached the muscle layer.Transurethral resecti…

Treating Stage II Bladder Cancer

These cancers have invaded the muscle layer of the bladder wall. Transurethral resection (TURBT) is typically the first treatment for these cancers…

Treating Stage III Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs.Transurethral resection (TURBT) is typical…

Treating Stage IV Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the abdominal or pelvic wall (T4b tumors) or have spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. Stage IV ca…

Treating Bladder Cancer That Progresses Or Recurs

If cancer continues to grow during treatment (progresses) or comes back (recurs), your treatment options will depend on where and how much the canc…

Which Treatments Are Used For Bladder Cancer?

Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: 1. Surgery 2. Intravesical th…

Which Doctors Treat Bladder Cancer?

Depending on your options, you can have different types of doctors on your treatment team. The types of doctors who treat bladder cancers include:…

Making Treatment Decisions

It’s important to discuss all of your treatment options, including their goals and possible side effects, with your doctors to help make the decisi…

Help Getting Through Treatment

Your cancer care team will be your first source of information and support, but there are other resources for help when you need it. Hospital- or c…

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What is the best treatment for bladder cancer?

If there are traces of cancer cells, options are intravesical BCG or cystectomy (the removal of part or all of the bladder). If the cancer is high grade, or many tumors are present, or even if the tumor is very large at the initial occurrence, oncologists recommend a radical cystectomy.

Can you have a radical cystectomy?

If the cancer is high grade, or many tumors are present, or even if the tumor is very large at the initial occurrence, oncologists recommend a radical cystectomy. For people who aren’t healthy enough for a cystectomy, radiation therapy might be an option along with the chemo, but the chances for cure are not as favorable.

Does bladder cancer spread to muscle?

Stage I bladder cancers stay in situ upto mucosa and connective tissue layer of the bladder wall. However, they have not spread to the muscle layer. Usually, transurethral resection (TURBT) with cystoscopy is the first treatment for these cancers. However, it helps determine the extent of the cancer and is part of cure as well.

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What is the treatment for stage 0A bladder cancer?

People with low-grade noninvasive bladder cancer (stage 0a) are treated with TURBT first. Low-grade noninvasive bladder cancer rarely turns into aggressive, invasive, or metastatic disease, but patients are at risk for developing more low-grade cancers throughout their life. This requires long-term checkups, called surveillance, using cystoscopy and urine cytology (see Diagnosis ). To reduce the risk of future tumors developing, people may receive intravesical chemotherapy after TURBT.

What is the best treatment for bladder cancer?

In general, the main treatment options for bladder cancer are: Surgery. Chemotherapy. Immunotherapy (local and systemic) Targeted therapy. Radiation therapy. To learn more about the basics of each type of treatment, read this guide’s Types of Treatment section.

How to treat bladder cancer?

Sometimes, people with muscle-invasive bladder cancer receive systemic chemotherapy first, before surgery. Then they may have a radical cystectomy and urinary diversion or may be given a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy . Giving neoadjuvant chemotherapy may shrink the tumor in the bladder, destroy microscopic cancer cells that have spread beyond the bladder, and ultimately help people live longer. An important clinical trial showed that a specific combination of systemic chemotherapy called MVAC given before radical cystectomy helped people with muscle-invasive bladder cancer live longer. This approach is now a standard treatment for people whose overall health allows it. The combination of 2 chemotherapy drugs, cisplatin and gemcitabine, is also considered a standard regimen for neoadjuvant therapy in muscle-invasive disease.

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What is neoadjuvant therapy?

Neoadjuvant therapy is treatment that is given before surgery, such as cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The treatments your doctor recommends mainly depend on the stage of bladder cancer. Treatment for cancer in the renal pelvis and/or ureter follow the same treatment plans based on the stage of the disease.

What is the first line of treatment for urothelial cancer?

The first treatment a person is given for advanced urothelial cancer is called first-line therapy . If that treatment stops working, then a person receives second-line therapy.

Can pembrolizumab be used for bladder cancer?

Pembrolizumab is approved by the FDA to treat bladder cancer that has not been stopped by, or responded to, BCG treatment (also called “BCG-unresponsive”) and radical cystectomy to remove the bladder cannot be done because of other medical reasons or the patient chooses not to have that surgery.

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What is the name of the team that works together to create a treatment plan for a patient?

This is called a multidisciplinary team .

What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: Bladder Cancer Surgery. Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer.

What are the things to consider when considering cancer treatment?

Some important things to consider include: Your age and expected life span. Any other serious health conditions you have. The stage and grade of your cancer. The likelihood that treatment will cure your cancer (or help in some other way) Your feelings about the possible side effects from treatment.

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What kind of doctor treats cancer?

Based on your treatment options, you might have different types of doctors on your treatment team. These doctors could include: 1 Urologists: surgeons who specialize in treating diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system 2 Radiation oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with radiation therapy 3 Medical oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy

Why is it important to communicate with your cancer care team?

Communicating with your cancer care team is important so you understand your diagnosis, what treatment is recommended, and ways to maintain or improve your quality of life.

What do people with cancer need?

People with cancer need support and information, no matter what stage of illness they may be in. Knowing all of your options and finding the resources you need will help you make informed decisions about your care.

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What are the things to consider when making a treatment decision?

Some important things to consider include: Your age and expected life span.

What are the services offered by the American Cancer Society?

These might include nursing or social work services, financial aid, nutritional advice, rehab, or spiritual help. The American Cancer Society also has programs and services – including rides to treatment, lodging, and more – to help you get through treatment.

What is the first treatment for bladder cancer?

Surgery is the first treatment for early stage bladder cancer.

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Can bladder cancer come back?

Sometimes bladder cancer comes back (recurs) after it has been treated or initial treatments don’t work. If the cancer is still non-invasive or non-muscle invasive, the following treatments can be used.

Can you get immunotherapy for bladder cancer?

You may be offered intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy for early stage bladder cancer after a TURBT. Intravesical means the drug is placed directly in the bladder.

Can you have a cystectomy on your bladder?

A cystectomy removes all or part of the bladder. It is not usually used for early stage bladder cancer, but it may be offered for bladder cancer that is classified as high risk. It may also be used if other treatments haven’t worked. A radical cystectomy to remove the whole bladder is most commonly done. Once the bladder is removed, urinary diversion surgery is needed to make a new way to hold urine (pee) and pass it out of the body.

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Can you give BCG again?

Induction therapy with intravesical BCG may be given again if the cancer comes back or continues to grow after the first course of intravesical BCG.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

The most common symptom of bladder cancer is reddish or brownish-colored urine from blood in the urine. Other symptoms include the frequent urge to urinate, pain while urinating, and pain in the back or pelvis. 4

What tests are used to diagnose bladder cancer?

These include blood tests, imaging tests that look inside the body, and samples of the tumors called a bladder biopsy, usually taken during surgery.

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What is radical cystectomy?

Cases this may be used for include those in which the tumors in the bladder take over a large part of the organ. This surgery removes the bladder and any nearby cancerous lymph nodes or tissues.

How do doctors diagnose cancer?

When doctors first diagnose a cancerous tumor of any kind, they assess how much it has grown, how far it has spread in the body, and how abnormal, or wild, the cancerous cells in the tumor look. These assessments are used to determine cancer’s stage (0 to IV) and grade. 2

How is cancer stage determined?

Cancer staging specifics are determined by guidelines set by the American Joint Committee on Cancer’s system, named the TNM staging system. 2

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Where does bladder cancer start?

Bladder cancer is a growth that starts in the inner wall of the bladder, the organ that collects and expels urine created by the kidneys. The bladder has three layers of muscular walls that make up its structure. 1 A cancerous growth in the bladder can grow uncontrollably and start spreading to other parts of the body.

How does a pathologist determine the grade of a cancer sample?

The pathologist determines the sample’s grade by how wild or abnormal the cells in the cancer look compared with the normal cells around them. The grades go from grade 1 (mostly normal) to grade 3 (very abnormal). 3

What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

3 A procedure that is commonly used to treat early stage bladder cancer is called transurethral resection of bladder tumor ( TURBT ). During this procedure, a surgeon inserts a very thin, …

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How to determine bladder cancer stage?

To determine a patient’s overall bladder cancer stage, healthcare providers use a combination of information from diagnostic tests and sometimes surgery. 1,2 This includes information about the bladder tumor (T), any cancer spread to nearby lymph nodes (N), and any metastasis (M) to other parts of the body more distant from the bladder.

What is stage 0A in cancer?

Stage 0a bladder cancer is also called a noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma.

How long does bladder cancer last?

Among people diagnosed with localized bladder cancer (sometimes called Stage 1) in the United State, the average five-year survival rate is around 70%. 4 This five-year survival rate means that on average, around 70 out of 100 people diagnosed at …

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How many stages of bladder cancer are there?

This helps to identify the best treatment options for a patient’s specific type of bladder cancer. The five overall stages of bladder cancer are: stage 0, stage I, stage II, stage III, and stage IV.

What is the earliest stage of bladder cancer?

Stage 0 is the earliest stage of bladder cancer, which involves abnormal cells that have grown in the thin layer of cells that line the inside of the bladder. There are two types of stage 0 bladder cancer: stage 0a and stage 0is. 1,2,3

Can you have surgery for bladder cancer?

Other patients with stage 0 or stage 1 bladder cancer may need to have surgery to remove all or part of the bladder. Some patients may decide to take part in a clinical trial investigating new types of bladder cancer treatment.

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What is the procedure called to remove bladder cancer?

It usually follows a procedure called transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). It’s intended to help prevent recurrence. This treatment only affects cells inside the bladder. It’s not useful for later stage bladder cancer that has spread into or beyond the bladder lining, or to other tissues and organs.

What is the survival rate for stage 1 bladder cancer?

Based on records from 2007 to 2013, the five-year relative survival rates were 95.7 percent for stage 0 bladder cancer and 70.1 percent for stage 1 bladder cancer.

How does a BCG catheter work?

A urinary catheter is inserted through your urethra and into your bladder. Then the BCG solution is injected into the catheter. The catheter is clamped off so the solution stays in your bladder. Some doctors may remove the catheter at this time. You have to hold the medicine in your bladder.

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How long does it take for a bladder catheter to unclamp?

You’ll be instructed to lie on your back and to roll from side to side to make sure the solution reaches your entire bladder. After about two hours, the catheter is unclamped so the fluid can be drained. If the catheter was already removed, you’ll be asked to empty your bladder at this time.

How to get rid of BCG in men?

Disinfect the urine by adding 2 cups of bleach into the toilet. Let it stand for about 20 minutes before flushing. You should also wash your genital area very carefully after you urinate, so your skin doesn’t become irritated from the BCG. Wash your hands thoroughly, too. Men can pass BCG to their partner during sex.

How long after BCG treatment can you have sex?

Men can pass BCG to their partner during sex. For that reason, you should avoid sex for 48 hours after each treatment. Use a condom between treatments and for six weeks following your final treatment. Women should avoid getting pregnant or breastfeeding while on BCG therapy.

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What to do before BCG?

Tell your doctor about all the medications you take. Certain immunosuppressants, antimicrobial therapies, and radiation therapies can interfere with BCG treatment. You’ll be advised to limit your fluid intake for four hours prior to …

What is the treatment for T1Hg bladder cancer?

Counselling patients with T1Hg bladder cancer on their treatment options (bladder-sparing intravesical therapy versus cystectomy) is an extensive and delicate process. Factoring in risk of recurrence and progression, patient age and medical comorbidities that predict life expectancy and quality of life is one of the most daunting clinical challenges facing urologists.22Patients should be thoroughly informed about the risks of progression to muscle-invasive disease or development of metastases. Patients must be instructed that vigilant surveillance of symptoms is imperative when receiving conservative therapy.

What is the worst stage of bladder cancer?

The worst scenario for patients with T1Hg bladder cancer is progression to an unresectable or metastatic stage during intravesical therapy. T1Hg bladder cancer progresses to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease at a rate of 30% to 50% after 5 years.2,23As a result, some studies advocate initial cystectomy based on the perceived acceptable morbidity and a 5-year disease-specific survival rate of 80% to 90%.24–28

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What is a T1 bladder cancer?

T1 bladder cancer represents 5% to 20% of NMIBC3,8,9and is defined as an invasion into the lamina propria without invasion into the muscularis propria. The 2004 World Health Organization pathology guidelines recommend a conversion from the previous classification of grade G1, G2 or G3 to that of low- or high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma.10Pathology reports should identify whether muscle tissue is present in the resected specimen. One study described that a pathology report of a repeat resection of T1 disease found the incidence of understaging was only 14% when muscle tissue was present compared to 49% when muscle tissue was absent in the initial specimen.11It is recommended that pathologists report the extensiveness of T1 disease since some studies have reported that focal lamina propria invasion may present fewer risks than extensive involvement.12While understaging remains problematic, overstaging of T1 disease in pathology reports has been described; about 25% to 35% of cases were found to be stage Ta disease when reviewed by a second pathologist.6,13,14This is significant to the discussion of cystectomy for treatment of stage T1 disease.

Can T1Hg be treated with BCG?

However, the paucity of effective conservative treatment alternatives for stage T1 disease may be misinterpreted as an immediate mortality risk in patients who continue to exhibit organ-confined disease. As we will discuss later, an initial trial of BCG rather than immediate cystectomy appears justified in almost all initial T1Hg cases without undue risk, since progression within the first six months is rare (less than 4%).9As previously discussed, a pathology report that over-stages T1 disease could result in some patients undergoing cystectomy for stage Ta disease. Furthermore, the unconvincing results associated with delayed cystectomy do not account for the successful patients who avoided surgery. The risks associated with over-treatment of 50% to 70% of patients with unnecessary cystectomy appear too great to warrant cystectomy as standard practice; however, the issue remains heavily debated. There are no prospective studies that demonstrate that early cystectomy has a survival benefit29and there are obvious quality-of-life issues associated with performing unnecessary cystectomies.

Is bladder cancer stage T1Hg lethal?

Stage T1Hg bladder cancer should be considered an aggressive and potentially lethal disease. The importance of initial re-resection to identify unrecognized muscle-invasive disease is significant. Most patients with high-risk disease are candidates for initial bladder salvage with intravesical BCG, a procedure with a high survival rate; however, failure of the procedure may result in a guarded prognosis. Even with apparent success, patients must be informed of the risks of disease progression to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease and the necessity of vigorous monitoring. Despite optimal management, a significant number of patients will relapse or progress to invasive disease and require cystectomy.

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Does mitomycin C work for bladder cancer?

Initial results on the administration of electromotive mitomycin C, which applies an intravesical electrical current, have been reported . A randomized study of BCG alone versus sequential BCG plus electromotive mitomycin C in patients with T1 bladder cancer found lower recurrence, progression and disease-specific mortality in patients who received electromotive mitomycin C.35However, further data are required before electromotive mitomycin C can be fully endorsed.

Is bladder cancer a non-muscle invasive cancer?

Approximately 70% of all newly diagnosed bladder tumours are non-muscle invasive bladder cancers ( NMIBC), including stage Ta, stage T1 and carcinoma in situ (CIS). Non-muscle invasive bladder cancers exist on a continuum of risk in patients with T1 high-grade (T1Hg) bladder cancer at the aggressive end of the spectrum. Following transurethral resection alone, T1Hg bladder cancer has a 69% to 80% recurrence rate and a 33% to 48% chance of progression to muscle-invasive disease.1–4This review provides insight into the optimal management of T1Hg bladder cancer.

How long does bladder cancer last?

The stage of cancer generally refers to how far it has progressed, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. For bladder cancer, the 5-year survival rate for people with: 2,3. If you would like to learn more about bladder cancer statistics, consider speaking with someone on your health care team.

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What percentage of bladder cancer is metastasized?

Bladder cancer that has spread to the regional lymph nodes is 35 percent. Distant or metastasized bladder cancer is 5 percent (sometimes called “Stage 4”) If you would like to learn more about bladder cancer statistics, consider speaking with someone on your health care team.

What is low grade bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is called low grade or high grade. Low-grade bladder cancer means the cancer has not invaded the muscles around the bladder (non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer). People rarely die from this type of bladder cancer, it often recurs after treatment.

Does bladder cancer spread to other parts of the body?

High-grade bladder cancer also often recurs and has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body. Almost all deaths from bladder cancer result this type so it is treated more aggressively.

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Can bladder cancer be cured?

Bladder cancer can often be cured, or brought into remission, especially if treated early. However, bladder cancer tend s to reappear . Overall, the chances of your cancer being cured depend on your type of cancer and how far it has spread. 1.

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