who bladder cancer classification

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How many types of bladder cancer are there?

 · This classification (WHO 2016) is applicable to tumors that occur throughout the urothelial tract including the bladder, ureter, renal pelvis and urethra. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the urothelial tract. High propensity for divergent differentiation and variant morphologies.

Is bladder cancer a high grade cancer?

13 rows · The cancer is a flat, non-invasive carcinoma (Tis), also known as flat carcinoma in situ (CIS). …

What is invasive bladder cancer?

What are the different “grades” for a bladder cancer tumor? Grade is expressed as a number between 1 (low) and 3 (high, i.e. G3); the higher the number the less the tumor resembles a normal cell. In lieu of numbers to grade a bladder cancer tumor, your doctor may refer to the tumor simply as low or high grade.

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What are the 3 types of bladder cancer?

The 3 main types of bladder cancer are:Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma (or UCC) accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers. … Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cells develop in the bladder lining in response to irritation and inflammation. … Adenocarcinoma.

What are the levels of bladder cancer?

Understanding your bladder cancer stageStageStage groupingIT1 N0 M0IIT2a or T2b N0 M0IIIAT3a, T3b or T4a N0 M0OR8 more rows•Jan 30, 2019

How are bladder tumors graded?

grade 1 – the cancer cells look very similar to normal bladder cells, they are usually slow-growing and are less likely to spread. grade 2 – the cancer cells look less like normal cells and are slightly faster growing. grade 3 – the cancer cells look very different to normal cells and usually grow more quickly.

What is grade 3 cancer of the bladder?

Grade 3. The cancer cells look very abnormal. They are called high grade or poorly differentiated. They grow more quickly and are more likely to come back after treatment or spread into the deeper (muscle) layer of the bladder.

What does T2 mean in bladder cancer?

T2: The tumor has spread to the muscle of the bladder wall. T2a: The tumor has spread to the inner half of the muscle of the bladder wall, which may be called the superficial muscle. T2b: The tumor has spread to the deep muscle of the bladder (the outer half of the muscle).

What is T1 High-Grade bladder cancer?

High-grade T1 (T1HG) bladder cancer (BCa) has a very high likelihood of disease recurrence and progression to muscle invasion. Radical cystectomy is considered the best chance at cure, albeit with a high risk of morbidity, and is overtreatment for some patients.

What size bladder tumor is considered large?

First, there is no common agreement regarding what size a bladder tumor constitutes a “large tumor.” In the literature, a large tumor has been variously defined as one with a total resected weight > 50 g, a weight ≥15 g, and a diameter > 5 cm [2-4].

What is g2 moderately differentiated?

Grade 2: The cells and tissue are somewhat abnormal and are called moderately differentiated. These are intermediate grade tumors. Grade 3: Cancer cells and tissue look very abnormal. These cancers are considered poorly differentiated, since they no longer have an architectural structure or pattern.

Are most bladder cancers High Grade?

They are also more likely to come back after treatment. Almost all invasive bladder cancers are high grade when diagnosed.

Is grade 3 cancer curable?

Stage 3 cancers require expert care and likely a lot of it. Though some stage 3 cancers can be cured, they are more likely to come back after going away. Doctors use cancer stages to compare patients with similar diagnoses.

What stage is low-grade bladder cancer?

People with low-grade noninvasive bladder cancer (stage 0a) are treated with TURBT first. Low-grade noninvasive bladder cancer rarely turns into aggressive, invasive, or metastatic disease, but patients are at risk for developing more low-grade cancers throughout their life.

What does Stage 3a bladder cancer mean?

In stage IIIA, cancer has spread from the bladder to (1) the layer of fat surrounding the bladder and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, seminal vesicles, uterus, or vagina), and cancer has not spread to lymph nodes; or (2) one lymph node in the pelvis that is not near the common iliac arteries ( …

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What is the stage of bladder cancer?

The stage of bladder cancer is based on the results of physical exams, biopsies, and imaging tests (CT or MRI scan, x-rays, etc.), which are described in Tests for Bladder Cancer, as well as the results of surgery .

Is bladder cancer a flat tumor?

The cancer is a flat, non-invasive car cinoma (Tis), also known as flat carcinoma in situ (CIS). The cancer is growing in the inner lining layer of the bladder only. It has not grown inward toward the hollow part of the bladder, nor has it invaded the connective tissue or muscle of the bladder wall.

What is the stage of cancer?

This process is called staging. The stage of a cancer describes the extent (amount) of cancer in the body. It helps determine how serious the cancer is and how best to treat it. The stage is one of the most important factors in deciding how to treat the cancer and determining how successful treatment might be.

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Is bladder cancer staging more accurate than clinical staging?

It’s based on the results of the physical exam, biopsy, imaging tests, and the results of surgery. This is likely to be more accurate than clinical staging, which only takes into account the tests done before surgery. Bladder cancer staging can be complex.

Does bladder cancer spread to lymph nodes?

The cancer has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0). II . T2a or T2b. N0. M0. The cancer has grown into the inner (T2a) or outer (T2b) muscle layer of the bladder wall, but it has not passed completely through the muscle to reach the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder.

Where does bladder cancer grow?

The cancer has grown through the muscle layer of the bladder and into the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder (T3a or T3b). It might have spread into the prostate, seminal vesicles, uterus, or vagina, but it’s not growing into the pelvic or abdominal wall (T4a).

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What is the T category in bladder?

The T category describes how far the main tumor has grown into the wall of the bladder ( or beyond). The wall of the bladder has 4 main layers. The innermost lining is called the urothelium or transitional epithelium. Beneath the urothelium is a thin layer of connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves.

How many types of bladder cancer are there?

Three types of bladder cancer may form, and each type of tumor can be present in one or more areas of the bladder, and more than one type can be present at the same time: Papillary tumors stick out from the bladder lining on a stalk. They tend to grow into the bladder cavity, away from the bladder wall, instead of deeper into the layers …

What are the different grades of bladder cancer?

What are the different “grades” for a bladder cancer tumor? Grade is expressed as a number between 1 (low) and 3 (high, i.e. G3); the higher the number the less the tumor resembles a normal cell. In lieu of numbers to grade a bladder cancer tumor, your doctor may refer to the tumor simply as low or high grade.

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Where do bladder cancers occur?

While the majority of bladder cancers (approximately 90-95%) arise in the bladder, the urothelial cells that line the bladder are found in other locations in the urinary system. Sometimes these urothelial cancers can occur in the lining of the kidney or in the ureter that connects the kidney to the bladder.

Where is urothelial cancer located?

This is known as upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) correspond to a subset of urothelial cancers that arise in the urothelial cells in the lining of the kidney (called the renal pelvis) or the ureter ( the long, thin tube that connects that kidney to the bladder). Learn more about UTUC here.

What doctor examines cancer tissue?

Urologists typically send a sample of the cancer tissue to a pathologist, a doctor who specializes in examining tissue to determine the stage and grade of the cancer. The pathologist writes a report with a diagnosis, and then sends it to your urologist.

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Is CIS a normal cancer?

The patch may look almost normal or may look red and inflamed. CIS is a type of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer that is of higher grade and increases the risk of recurrence and progression. At diagnosis, approximately 10% of patients with bladder cancer present with CIS.

What is the cancer of the bladder called?

Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder. Most bladder cancers — about 90 percent — begin in the cells on the surface of the bladder’s inner lining. This type of cancer is called urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma). Most urothelial carcinomas are noninvasive.

What is the most common form of bladder cancer?

Urothelial carcinoma is by far the most common form of bladder cancer in the United States. Other types of bladder cancer are rarer, although they may have a higher frequency in other parts of the world. These types include:

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Where does bladder cancer start?

Most bladder cancers — about 90 percent — begin in the cells on the surface of the bladder’s inner lining. This type of cancer is called urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma). Most urothelial carcinomas are noninvasive. That means the tumor stays within the bladder’s inner lining.

What is the name of the cancer that starts on the surface of the bladder?

Most bladder cancers — about 90 percent — begin in the cells on the surface of the bladder’s inner lining. This type of cancer is called urothelial carcinoma (also called transitional cell carcinoma). Most urothelial carcinomas are noninvasive.

What percentage of cases of bladder cancer are adenocarcinoma?

This rare form of bladder cancer accounts for about 1 percent of cases. Adenocarcinoma can be associated with certain bladder defects at birth, as well as with chronic infection and inflammation.

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What are the variants of urothelial carcinoma?

The variant of urothelial carcinoma affects the treatment. The variants are called: plasmacytoid. nested. micropapillary. lipoid cell. sarcomatoid. microcystic.

Is urothelial carcinoma noninvasive?

Most urothelial carcinomas are noninvasive. That means the tumor stays within the bladder’s inner lining. Urothelial carcinoma also has rarer subtypes, or “variants.”. These differ depending on how the cells appear under a microscope. The variant of urothelial carcinoma affects the treatment. The variants are called:

Is bladder cancer a high grade cancer?

It has not grown in toward the hollow part of the bladder, and it has not spread to the thick layer of muscle or connective tissue of the bladder (Tis, N0, M0). This is always a high-grade cancer (see “Grades,” below) and is considered an aggressive disease because it can lead to muscle-invasive disease.

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What is the name of the cancer that has not invaded the bladder?

The cancer has not invaded the muscle or connective tissue of the bladder wall. This type of bladder cancer is also called noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma (Ta, N0, M0). Stage 0is: This stage of cancer, also known as a flat tumor or carcinoma in situ (CIS), is found only on the inner lining of the bladder.

What is staging in cancer?

Staging is a way of describing where the cancer is located, if or where it has invaded or spread, and whether it is affecting other parts of the body. Doctors use diagnostic tests to find out the cancer’s stage, so staging may not be complete until all of the tests are finished.

How many stages of cancer are there?

There are 5 stages: stage 0 (zero) and stages I through IV (1 through 4). The stage provides a common way of describing the cancer, so doctors can work together to plan the best treatments. Staging can be clinical or pathological.

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Does bladder cancer come back?

This type of bladder cancer often comes back after treatment, usually as another noninvasive cancer in the bladder. T1: The tumor has spread to the connective tissue (called the lamina propria) that separates the lining of the bladder from the muscles beneath, but it does not involve the bladder wall muscle.

What does NX mean in cancer?

NX: The regional lymph nodes cannot be evaluated. N0 (N plus zero): The cancer has not spread to the regional lymph nodes. N1: The cancer is 2 centimeters (cm) or smaller in a single lymph node. N2: The cancer is larger than 2 cm in a single lymph node, or it has spread to more than 1 lymph node.

What is the stage of bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer. Stage 0a: This is an early cancer that is only found on the surface of the inner lining of the bladder. Cancer cells are grouped together and can often be easily removed. The cancer has not invaded the muscle or connective tissue of the bladder wall.

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Can a bladder tumor be understaged?

Understaging a tumor in a bladder biopsy is a common problem. Tumors that invade the lamina propria only are frequently managed conservatively with a combination of transurethral resection and intravesical therapy (BCG and/or intravesical chemotherapy). Tumors that invade the detrusor muscle are managed with more aggressive surgery (cystectomy).

What type of cancer spreads outside the urinary system?

Types of Urothelial Cancer. In order to spread outside of the urinary system, urothelial (bladder and upper tract) carcinoma must invade into the lamina propria and beyond.

What is non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma?

Non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma: These are tumors that form papillary structures that are lined by abnormal urothelial cells with varying degrees of cellular atypia. Those tumors with mild atypia are called “low-grade”, while those tumors with more pronounced atypia are called “high-grade.” Both low- and high-grade tumors can be multifocal and frequently recur after resection.

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What is a low grade tumor?

Those tumors with mild atypia are called “low-grade”, while those tumors with more pronounced atypia are called “high-grade.”. Both low- and high-grade tumors can be multifocal and frequently recur after resection. Low-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas are characterized by orderly appearance of cells that are evenly spaced and cohesive.

Is urothelial carcinoma in situ?

Urothelial carcinoma in-situ (CIS): In contrast to papillary carcinomas, CIS is a flat high-grade cancer that is difficult to visualize in cystoscopy. CIS is always high-grade as it has a has a 50% to 75% risk of becoming invasive, if left untreated.

Is a mesenchymal tumor benign?

Mesenchymal tumors arise from the connective tissue cells of the bladder. These tumors are much less common than urothelial tumors and can be benign or malignant. Malignant mesenchymal tumors are termed sarcomas. Sarcomas can become large and have the capacity to invade adjacent organs and give rise to distant metastases. The most common sarcoma of infancy is rhabdomyosarcoma and of adults is leiomyosarcomas.

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What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma (TCC). This type accounts for about 95 percent of bladder cancers.

Is bladder cancer invasive?

Almost all squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder are invasive. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder closely resembles the gland-forming cells seen in colon cancers, and accounts for about 1 percent of bladder cancers in the United States.

What type of cancer grows out of the bladder?

Cancer cells of this type look like the urothelial cells lining the inside of the bladder. There are two subtypes of TCC: Papillary carcinoma: Grows out from the inner surface of the bladder toward the hollow center in finger-like projections.

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Does a flat carcinoma grow out of the bladder?

Flat carcinomas: This type of TCC does not grow out of the urothelium toward the center of the bladder. Rather, flat carcinomas remain on the surface of the bladder wall. If a flat carcinoma is confined to the urothelium, it is called noninvasive flat carcinoma or flat carcinoma in situ. Rarer forms of bladder cancer include:

What percentage of bladder cancer is squamous cell carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 1 percent to 2 percent of bladder cancers diagnosed in the United States. Squamous cells look similar to the flat cells on the surface of the skin. Almost all squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder are invasive.

What is the name of the cancer that looks like flat cells on the skin?

Squamous cells look similar to the flat cells on the surface of the skin. Almost all squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder are invasive. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder closely resembles the gland-forming cells seen in colon cancers, and accounts for about 1 percent of bladder cancers in the United States.

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What is the rarest bladder cancer?

Small-cell carcinoma is extremely rare, accounting for fewer than 1 percent of all bladder cancers diagnosed in the United States. This type of bladder cancer begins in neuroendocrine cells, which are similar to nerves. Sarcoma is another very rare type of bladder cancer that begins in the muscle layer of the bladder wall.

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain. It is caused when epithelial cells that line the bladder become malignant.

What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. It may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the bladder, or urinary diversion.

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What is the survival rate for a bladder transplant?

The typical five-year survival rates in the United States is 77%, Canada is 75%, and Europe is 68%.

What is the survival rate of a urinary bladder infection?

Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the bladder, or urinary diversion. The typical five-year survival rates in the United States is 77%, Canada is 75%, and Europe is 68%.

Where is the highest rate of bladder cancer?

In 2018, the highest rate of bladder cancer occurred in Southern and Western Europe followed by North America with rates of 15, 13, and 12 cases per 100,000 people. The highest rates of bladder cancer deaths were seen in Northern Africa and Western Asia followed by Southern Europe.

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Is blood in urine a sign of bladder cancer?

Blood in the urine is the most common symptom in bladder cancer, and is painless. Visible blood in the urine may be of only short duration, and a urine test may be required to confirm non-visible blood. Between 80 and 90% of people with bladder cancer initially presented with visible blood.

Can bladder cancer cause cystitis?

These signs and symptoms are not specific to bladder cancer, and may also be caused by non-cancerous conditions, including prostate infections, overactive bladder or cystitis. Some rare forms of bladder cancer like urachal adenocarcinoma produce mucin, which is then excreted in the urine causing it to be thick.

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