who discovered bladder cancer



Discovery. Cystoscope was first discovered by Maximilian Nitze, a German urologist, in 1877. Association between bladder cancer and environmental carcinogens is first discovered in 1895. Urine cytology is first described in 1945.May 10, 2018

What is the life expectancy for bladder cancer?

Purpose: We review how the bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine evolved to become standard therapy for superficial bladder cancer. Materials and methods: We reviewed the historical literature describing the origin of the bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine as an anticancer agent and its singular success as the most effective immunotherapy used against a human neoplasm.

What is the best treatment for bladder cancer?

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is comprised of a variety of cancer diatheses that manifest a spectrum of distinct biologic potentials. Although these diseases have traditionally been classified as “superficial” and “muscle invasive” on the basis of …

How many men die from bladder cancer?

1.6K. The bladder, which is the muscular sac in humans and other organisms that collects urine and prepares it to leave the body, can be invaded by cancer. Learn about the symptoms, signs …

What is the recovery time for bladder cancer surgery?

 · The study, published by The Journal of Clinical Investigation, is a joint effort between CNIO’s Tumour Suppression and Epithelial Carcinogenesis Groups, led by Manuel Serrano and Francisco X. Real,…


Who first discovered bladder cancer?

In April 1895, during the 24th Congress of the German Association of Surgeons, he presented his findings entitled “Urinary Bladder Tumors Among Fuchsine Workers.” Rehn had used the cystoscope invented by Maximilian Nitze to diagnose bladder cancer in three of the 45 workers.

When was the first case of bladder cancer?

Result: Production of aromatic amine was started in about 1920 in our country, and the first occupational bladder cancer case was reported in 1940.

What is bladder cancer known as?

Urothelial carcinoma, also known as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is by far the most common type of bladder cancer. In fact, if you have bladder cancer it’s almost certain to be a urothelial carcinoma.

Where does bladder cancer first occur?

When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes.

Is bladder cancer a death sentence?

Bladder cancer is not a death sentence. With chemotherapy and a healthy lifestyle, many people have recovered and are enjoying life cancer-free. After years of successful treatment for bladder cancer, the medical industry has learned a lot about bladder cancer.

Who is at high risk for bladder cancer?

Though it can occur at any age, most people diagnosed with bladder cancer are older than 55. Being male. Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are. Exposure to certain chemicals.

What are the 3 types of bladder cancer?

The 3 main types of bladder cancer are:Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma (or UCC) accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers. … Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cells develop in the bladder lining in response to irritation and inflammation. … Adenocarcinoma.

What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.

Is bladder cancer a silent killer?

Bladder cancer is the most expensive cancer to treat, and it has a reputation for being a silent killer. As with most cancers, awareness and early detection are critical in saving lives. According to Bladder Cancer Canada, about 120,000 people will be diagnosed with bladder cancer this year alone.

How fast growing is bladder cancer?

low grade – the cancer cells are usually slow-growing. Most bladder tumours are low grade. high grade – the cancer cells look very abnormal and grow quickly. They are more likely to spread.

How long can you live after bladder removal?

Patients in group 1 achieved a progression-free 5-year survival rate of 77% and an overall survival rate of 63% after 5 years. In group 2 patients achieved a progression-free survival rate of 51% after 5 years and an overall survival rate of 50%.

Can bladder cancer be cured?

The prognosis depends on the following: The stage of the cancer (whether it is superficial or invasive bladder cancer, and whether it has spread to other places in the body). Bladder cancer in the early stages can often be cured.

What is the origin of bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer arises primarily from the transitional cells of the bladder mucosal epithelium (90% of cases) and may present as a noninvasive, papillary tumor protruding from the mucosal surface that is readily resectable.

What is the life expectancy of someone with bladder cancer?

5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancerSEER Stage5-year Relative Survival RateIn situ alone Localized96% 70%Regional38%Distant6%All SEER stages combined77%Mar 1, 2022

What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.

How did you find out you had bladder cancer?

Tests for bladder cancer look for different substances and/or cancer cells in the urine. Urinalysis: One way to test for bladder cancer is to check for blood in the urine ( hematuria). This can be done during a urinalysis, which is a simple test to check for blood and other substances in a sample of urine.


Is bladder cancer a malignancy?

Importance Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in women and is the fourth most common malignancy in men. Bladder cancer ranges from unaggressive and usually noninvasive tumors that recur and commit patients to long-term invasive surveillance, to aggressive and invasive tumors with high disease-specific mortality.

Can bladder cancer be diagnosed with a microscopic tumor?

Bladder tumors can present with gross or microscopic hematuria, which is evaluated with cystoscopy and upper tract imaging depending on the degree of hematuria and risk of malignancy.

What is the My Bladder Cancer Story campaign?

“It is our hope that the My Bladder Cancer Story campaign will be an avenue for those affected by bladder cancer to share their stories to be a voice for those who, for far too long, have felt alone in this fight against this disease.”


What was Reiter’s syndrome?

In 1980, was diagnosed with Reiter’s syndrome, an autoimmune disease consisting of a triad of symptoms, iritis, urethritis, and arthritis. Over the years, individual symptoms would occasionally flare up. My eyes would burn, or my joints would hurt, and if all three flared up simultaneously, I would have to…. Read More.

When was cancer first discovered?

The First Documented Case of Cancer. The world’s oldest documented case of cancer hails from ancient Egypt in 1500 BC. 2  The details were recorded on papyrus, documenting eight cases of tumors occurring on the breast.

What was wrongfully awarded for the discovery of stomach cancer?

In 1926, a Nobel Prize was wrongfully awarded for the discovery of the cause of stomach cancer, a worm. The 20th century saw the greatest progression in cancer research. Research identifying carcinogens, chemotherapy , radiation therapy, and better means of diagnosis was discovered.


What did Hippocrates call cancer?

Hippocrates used the Greek words carcinos and carcinoma to describe tumors, thus calling cancer “karkinos.”. 1  The Greek terms actually were words that were used to describe a crab, which Hippocrates thought a tumor resembled.

What is the theory that cancer spreads like a liquid?

6  Other theories surfaced, such as cancer being caused by trauma, parasites, and it was thought that cancer may spread “like a liquid.”.

When was blood circulation discovered?

Blood circulation was discovered, opening the doors for more research on diseases. It wasn’t until 1761 that autopsies were performed to research the cause of death in ill patients. Giovanni Morgagni of Padua was the first to do such autopsies. 5 .


When was the lymphatic system discovered?

The lymph theory developed in the 17th century , replacing Hippocrates’ black bile theory on the cause of cancer. The discovery of the lymphatic system gave new insight into what may cause cancer. It was believed that abnormalities in the lymphatic system were the cause. 3 

Who caused cancer in ancient Egypt?

This was the general thought of the cause of cancer for the next 1,400 years. 4  In ancient Egypt, it was believed that cancer was caused by the Gods.

Who discovered x-rays?

Wilhelm Roentgen discovers x-rays. The first x-ray picture is an image of his wife’s hand.


Who coined the term “leukemia”?

Rudolph Virchow identifies white blood cells (leukocytes) in cancerous tissue, making the first connection between inflammation and cancer. Virchow also coins the term “leukemia” and is the first person to describe the excess number of white blood cells in the blood of patients with this disease.

How many types of cancer are there in the human body?

Researchers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, a joint effort by NCI and the National Human Genome Research Institute to analyze the DNA and other molecular changes in more than 30 types of human cancer, find that gastric (stomach) cancer is actually four different diseases, not just one, based on differing tumor characteristics. This finding from TCGA and other related projects may potentially lead to a new classification system for cancer, in which cancers are classified by their molecular abnormalities as well as their organ or tissue site of origin.

What is the treatment for breast cancer?

Sir Geoffrey Keynes describes the treatment of breast cancer with breast-sparing surgery followed by radiation therapy . After surgery to remove the tumor, long needles containing radium are inserted throughout the affected breast and near the adjacent axillary lymph nodes.


How much did helical CT reduce lung cancer?

Initial results of the NCI-sponsored Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) show that screening with low-dose helical computerized tomography (CT) reduced lung cancer deaths by about 20% in a large group of current and former heavy smokers.

What is the name of the disease that Peyton Rous discovered?

Peyton Rous discovers a virus that causes cancer in chickens (Rous sarcoma virus), establishing that some cancers are caused by infectious agents.

How can cervical cancer be detected?

George Papanicolaou discovers that cervical cancer can be detected by examining cells from the vagina under a microscope . This breakthrough leads to the development of the Pap test, which allows abnormal cervical cells to be detected and removed before they become cancerous.


What is the first treatment for bladder cancer?

Chemo (with or without radiation) is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body (M1). After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done.

What is stage 0 bladder cancer?

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis or carcinoma in situ). In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded (spread deeper into) the bladder wall.

What to do if you have cancer that hasn’t been removed?

(Less often, close follow-up alone might be an option.) If all of the cancer wasn’t removed, options are intravesical BCG or cystectomy (removal of part or all of the bladder).


How to get rid of stage IV cancer?

The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options.

What is the treatment for cancer that recurs in distant parts of the body?

Cancers that recur in distant parts of the body can be harder to remove with surgery, so other treatments, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy , might be needed. For more on dealing with a recurrence, see Understanding Recurrence.

Can you get a radical cystectomy before surgery?

Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo. But most doctors prefer to give chemo before surgery because it’s been shown to help patients live longer than surgery alone. When chemo is given first, surgery is delayed. This is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the bladder cancer, but it might be harmful if the tumor continues to grow during chemo.


Can you get a partial cystectomy for bladder cancer?

Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients . Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo.


Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain. It is caused when epithelial cells that line the bladder become malignant.
Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, prior radiation t…

Signs and symptoms

Bladder cancer characteristically causes blood in the urine, which may be visible or detectable only by microscope. Blood in the urine is the most common symptom in bladder cancer, and is painless. Visible blood in the urine may be of only short duration, and a urine test may be required to confirm non-visible blood. Between 80 and 90% of people with bladder cancer initially presented w…


Tobacco smoking is the main known contributor to urinary bladder cancer; in most populations, smoking is associated with over half of bladder cancer cases in men and one-third of cases among women, however these proportions have reduced over recent years since there are fewer smokers in Europe and North America. There is an almost linear relationship between smoking duration (in years), pack yearsand bladder cancer risk. A risk plateau at smoking about 15 cigare…


Mutations in FGFR3, TP53, PIK3CA, KDM6A, ARID1A, KMT2D, HRAS, TERT, KRAS, CREBBP, RB1 and TSC1 genes may be associated with some cases of bladder cancer. Deletions of parts or whole of chromosome 9 is common in bladder cancer. Low grade cancer are known to harbor mutations in RAS pathway and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, both of which play a role in the MAPK/ERK pathway. p53 and RBgene mutations are implicated in high-grade muscle invasive …


Currently, the best diagnosis of the state of the bladder is by way of cystoscopy, which is a procedure in which a flexible or rigid tube (called a cystoscope) bearing a camera and various instruments are inserted into the bladder through the urethra. The flexible procedure allows for a visual inspection of the bladder, for minor remedial work to be undertaken and for samples of suspicious lesio…


As of 2019, there is limited high level evidence to suggest that eating vegetable and fruits decreases the risk of bladder cancer. A 2008 study concluded that “specific fruit and vegetables may act to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.” Fruit and yellow-orange vegetables, particularly carrots and those containing selenium, are probably associated with a moderately reduced risk of bladder cancer. Citrus fruits and cruciferous vegetableswere also identified as having a possibly …


The treatment of bladder cancer depends on how deeply the tumor invades into the bladder wall.
Treatment strategies for bladder cancer include:
• Non-muscle invasive: transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) with or without intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy


People with non-muscle invasive tumors have a favorable outcome (5-year survival is 95% vs. 69% of muscle invasive bladder cancer). However, 70% of them will have a recurrence after initial treatment with 30% of them presenting with muscle invasive disease. Recurrence and progression to a higher disease stage have a less favorable outcome.
Survival after radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph nodedissection is dependent on the pathologic…

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