are there different types of bladder cancer



The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell

transitional cell
Transitional cell cancer (TCC) is a rare type of kidney cancer. It starts in cells called transitional cells. There are many different types of cells in the body, each with a particular job to do. Transitional cells are able to change shape and stretch. › transitional-cell

bladder cancer. This is also called urothelial bladder cancer. Rarer types include squamous cell bladder cancer, adenocarcinoma, sarcoma and small cell bladder cancer.Oct 22, 2018

What are the 3 types of bladder cancer?

The 3 main types of bladder cancer are:Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma (or UCC) accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers. … Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cells develop in the bladder lining in response to irritation and inflammation. … Adenocarcinoma.

What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

Urothelial carcinoma, also known as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is by far the most common type of bladder cancer. In fact, if you have bladder cancer it’s almost certain to be a urothelial carcinoma.

How many grades of bladder cancer are there?

Grades of bladder cancer Cancer cells are split into 3 grades (from 1 to 3) depending what they look like under the microscope. The grade gives doctors an idea of how the cancer might behave.

What is an aggressive form of bladder cancer?

Muscle invasive bladder cancer is a serious and more advanced stage of bladder cancer. MIBC is when the cancer has grown far into the wall of the bladder (Stages T2 and beyond). For patients with MIBC, the overall prognosis (how the disease may progress) is dependent on stage and treatment.

What is the life expectancy of someone with bladder cancer?

5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancerSEER Stage5-year Relative Survival RateIn situ alone Localized96% 70%Regional38%Distant6%All SEER stages combined77%Mar 1, 2022

Does bladder cancer spread quickly?

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

What is the difference between low grade and high grade bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer can also be described as either low grade or high grade. Low grade bladder cancer means that your cancer is less likely to grow, spread and come back after treatment. High grade means your cancer is more likely to grow spread and come back after treatment.

How fast does bladder cancer progress?

As many as 50% of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer may have occult metastases that become clinically apparent within 5 years of initial diagnosis and around 5% will have distant metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis. Most patients with overt metastatic disease die within 2 years despite chemotherapy.

Where does bladder cancer spread first?

When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes.

What are the signs that bladder cancer has spread?

The signs and symptoms of bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body include:tiredness or weakness.pain when urinating.difficulty urinating or inability to urinate.pain in the lower back on one side of the body.weight loss.swollen feet.bone pain.

What size bladder tumor is considered large?

First, there is no common agreement regarding what size a bladder tumor constitutes a “large tumor.” In the literature, a large tumor has been variously defined as one with a total resected weight > 50 g, a weight ≥15 g, and a diameter > 5 cm [2-4].

Does removing the bladder cure bladder cancer?

Removing part of the bladder is not a common operation for bladder cancer. It is usually used to treat the very rare type of cancer called adenocarcinoma of the bladder. After having a partial cystectomy, you can pass urine in the normal way.


What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma (TCC). This type accounts for about 95 percent of bladder cancers.

Is bladder cancer invasive?

Almost all squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder are invasive. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder closely resembles the gland-forming cells seen in colon cancers, and accounts for about 1 percent of bladder cancers in the United States.

What is the name of the tumor that grows out of the bladder?

Papillary carcinoma: Grows out from the inner surface of the bladder toward the hollow center in finger-like projections. Often, these tumors are called noninvasive papillary cancers, meaning they don’t grow into the deeper layers of the bladder wall.

What percentage of bladder cancer is squamous cell carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 1 percent to 2 percent of bladder cancers diagnosed in the United States. Squamous cells look similar to the flat cells on the surface of the skin. Almost all squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder are invasive.

Where does bladder cancer start?

This type of bladder cancer begins in neuroendocrine cells, which are similar to nerves. Sarcoma is another very rare type of bladder cancer that begins in the muscle layer of the bladder wall.

What is flat carcinoma?

If a flat carcinoma is confined to the urothelium, it is called noninvasive flat carcinoma or flat carcinoma in situ. Rarer forms of bladder cancer include: Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 1 percent to 2 percent of bladder cancers diagnosed in the United States.

What are the different types of bladder cancer?

There are several different types of bladder cancers. 2 However, one type of bladder cancer—called urothelial carcinoma —is by far the most common in the United States. Other types of bladder cancer include: 1 Squamous cell carcinoma 2 Adenocarcinoma 3 Small cell carcinoma 4 Sarcomas

What is bladder cancer?

What is a bladder tumor? When cancer cells start growing in the bladder, they can form a group of cells called a bladder tumor . A bladder tumor is sometimes called a bladder mass. Bladder tumors made up of cancer cells are called malignant tumors, and these cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body outside of the bladder.

Do cancer cells die off?

Cancer cells grow in an uncontrolled way. New cancer cells keep developing, but the old cancer cells do not die off as they should. The cancer cells can start to crowd out the healthy cells.

What is urothelial carcinoma?

What is a urothelial carcinoma? Around 90% of people who are diagnosed with bladder cancer in the United States have the type called urothelial carcinoma. 2,3 It is called “urothelial” because the cancer cells start out by developing in the lining of the bladder walls, in a layer of cells called the urothelium.

Is bladder cancer invasive?

Bladder cancer can be invasive or non-invasive. If it is non-invasive, then all the cancer cells are still located in the thin layer of cells in the lining of the bladder wall (the urothelium) and have not grown deeper into the bladder. If it is invasive, then the cancer cells have grown deeper into the bladder wall.

Can bladder cancer spread to other areas?

If it is invasive, then the cancer cells have grown deeper into the bladder wall. Bladder cancer that is invasive is more likely to spread into the bladder muscle and on to other areas of the body. The shape of a bladder tumor can be either papillary or flat. Both papillary and flat tumors can be invasive or non-invasive, …

What is a flat tumor?

Papillary or flat tumors. Papillary tumors grow out from the inner lining toward the hollow center of the bladder, in slim finger-shaped growths. These are often non-invasive, because they grow outward from the bladder lining rather than inward deeper into the bladder walls. One type of slow growing, non-invasive papillary bladder cancer is called …

What is low grade papillary urothelial carcinoma?

Low-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas are characterized by orderly appearance of cells that are evenly spaced and cohesive. There is minimal but definitive nuclear atypia that is characterized by hyperchromasia, mild variation of nuclear size and mitoses are infrequent.

Is urothelial carcinoma in situ?

Urothelial carcinoma in-situ (CIS): In contrast to papillary carcinomas, CIS is a flat high-grade cancer that is difficult to visualize in cystoscopy. CIS is always high-grade as it has a has a 50% to 75% risk of becoming invasive, if left untreated.

What is a low grade tumor?

Those tumors with mild atypia are called “low-grade”, while those tumors with more pronounced atypia are called “high-grade.”. Both low- and high-grade tumors can be multifocal and frequently recur after resection. Low-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas are characterized by orderly appearance of cells that are evenly spaced and cohesive.

Can PD-L1 be tested for immunotherapy?

With the advent of immunotherapy and FDA approval of immunotherapy in certain patients, testing of PD-L1 expression in urothelial carcinomas has become frequent. PD-L1 expression is tested using immunohistochemistry on the same tissue that has been used for a pathologic diagnosis. Patients with a positive test result are more likely to respond to immunotherapy, but some patients with negative tests can also show some favorable response.

Is a mesenchymal tumor benign?

Mesenchymal tumors arise from the connective tissue cells of the bladder. These tumors are much less common than urothelial tumors and can be benign or malignant. Malignant mesenchymal tumors are termed sarcomas. Sarcomas can become large and have the capacity to invade adjacent organs and give rise to distant metastases. The most common sarcoma of infancy is rhabdomyosarcoma and of adults is leiomyosarcomas.

What is the most significant prognostic factor?

The extent of invasion is the most significant prognostic factor and determines the type of therapy. Understaging a tumor in a bladder biopsy is a common problem. Tumors that invade the lamina propria only are frequently managed conservatively with a combination of transurethral resection and intravesical therapy …

What are the different grades of bladder cancer?

What are the different “grades” for a bladder cancer tumor? Grade is expressed as a number between 1 (low) and 3 (high, i.e. G3); the higher the number the less the tumor resembles a normal cell. In lieu of numbers to grade a bladder cancer tumor, your doctor may refer to the tumor simply as low or high grade.

Where do bladder cancers occur?

While the majority of bladder cancers (approximately 90-95%) arise in the bladder, the urothelial cells that line the bladder are found in other locations in the urinary system. Sometimes these urothelial cancers can occur in the lining of the kidney or in the ureter that connects the kidney to the bladder.

What are the stages of bladder cancer?

Stage suggests the location of the tumor in relation to the inner lining of the bladder. The higher the stage the further the tumor has grown away from its original site on the surface. The following are the stages for bladder tumors: 1 T0: No tumor 2 Ta: Papillary tumor without invading the bladder wall 3 TIS (CIS): Carcinoma in situ (non-invasive flat high- grade (G3) cancer) 4 T1: Tumor invades the connective tissue under the surface lining 5 T2: Tumor invades the muscle layer 6 T3: Tumor penetrates the bladder wall and invades the surrounding fat layer 7 T4: Tumor invades other organs (i.e., prostate, uterus, vagina, pelvic wall)

Where do papillary tumors grow?

Papillary tumors stick out from the bladder lining on a stalk. They tend to grow into the bladder cavity, away from the bladder wall, instead of deeper into the layers of the bladder wall. Sessile tumors lie flat against the bladder lining.

What is CIS in a patient?

CIS is a type of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer that is of higher grade and increases the risk of recurrence and progression. At diagnosis, approximately 10% of patients with bladder cancer present with CIS.

What are the different types of bladder cancer?

There are three main types of bladder cancer, and another kind of cancer (the last on the list) that’s rarely but still sometimes seen in the bladder: 1 Urothelial carcinoma, also called transitional cell carcinoma 2 Squamous cell carcinoma 3 Adenocarcinoma 4 Small cell carcinoma

What type of cancer is found in the bladder?

There are three main types of bladder cancer, and another kind of cancer (the last on the list) that’s rarely but still sometimes seen in the bladder: Urothelial carcinoma, also called transitional cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma. Small cell carcinoma.

What is the first sign of bladder cancer?

Most often, the first sign that ultimately leads to the diagnosis of bladder cancer is blood in the urine.

How to tell if you have bladder cancer?

Most often, the first sign that ultimately leads to the diagnosis of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. Known as hematuria, the presence of blood in the urine may be noticed by the individual or it may be too minute to see with the naked eye but detected under a microscope during a routine urine test, or urinalysis.

What is it called when you see blood in your urine?

Known as hematuria, the presence of blood in the urine may be noticed by the individual or it may be too minute to see with the naked eye but detected under a microscope during a routine urine test, or urinalysis.

How many people die from bladder cancer?

There are three main types of bladder cancer, and another kind of cancer (the last on the list) that’s rarely but still sometimes seen in the bladder: Annually, about 56,000 men and 18,000 women get bladder cancer, and approximately 12,000 men and 5,000 women die from it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

What is the second most common form of skin cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of skin cancer, accounting for perhaps 1% to 2% of bladder cancers. Viewed under the microscope, squamous cells look similar to the flat cells found on the surface of the skin. Adenocarcinoma accounts for just about 1% of bladder cancer cases, according to the American Cancer Society.


Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers, affecting approximately 68,000 adults in the United States each year. Bladder cancer occurs in men more frequently than it does in women and usually affects older adults, though it can happen at any age.Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) …

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Bladder cancer is the growth of abnormal or cancerous cells on the inner lining of the bladder wall. Most bladder cancers are detected at early stages when the tumor has not spread outside the bladder and treatments are successful. Partial cystectomy includes the removal of part of the bladder. This operation is usually f…

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  • Basic descriptions of the most common types of treatments used for bladder cancer are listed below. Take time to learn about all of your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Also, talk about the goals of each treatment with your doctor and what you can expect while receiving the treatment. These types of talks are called “shared decision makin…

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  • Tumour describes the size of the tumour.Doctors find the T stage by taking tissue samples (biopsies) to look at the grade of the cancer cells. The grade tells you how much the cancer cells look like normal cells. They also look at your bladder using a cystoscopy and a CT or MRI scan.There are several T stages:CIS or Tis means very early, high grade cancer cells are only in t…

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  • The prognosis is different for each type of bladder cancer. Papillary urothelial carcinomas of the bladder have the best prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma of the bladder tend to have a poor prognosis. They are usually invasive and diagnosed at a later stage.

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  • Surgery for Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is the most common reason for patients to undergo bladder surgery. Depending on the stage and progression of a patient’s bladder cancer, surgery can be used in combination with other therapies such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. To treat bladder cancer, many different types of procedures can be done: Additionally in severe cas…

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  • Early stage cancers are most commonly treated by transurethral surgery. An instrument (resectoscope) with a small wire loop is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder. The loop removes a tumor by cutting or burning it with electrical current, allowing it to be extracted from the bladder. Internal radiation consists of inserting a small pellet of radioactive material ins…

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  • Recovery from bladder cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer is difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. T…

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  • Treatment options for bladder cancer depend on a number of factors, including the type of cancer, grade of the cancer and stage of the cancer, which are taken into consideration along with your overall health and your treatment preferences.Bladder cancer treatment may include: 1. Surgery, to remove cancerous tissue 2. Chemotherapy in the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy), to trea…

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Signs And Symptoms

  • Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: 1. Blood in urine (hematuria) 2. Painful urination 3. Pelvic painIf you have hematuria, your urine may appear bright red or cola colored. Sometimes, urine may not look any different, but blood in urine may be detected during a microscopic exam of the urine.People with bladder cancer might also experience: 1. Back pain 2. Frequent urinationB…

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  • One sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, also known as hematuria. Blood in the urine does not always mean bladder cancer. Hematuria is most often caused by other conditions like trauma, infection, blood disorders, kidney problems, exercise, or certain medications. Blood in the urine may be seen by the naked eye (gross hematuria) or only detected on urine testing (microscopic …

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  • Bladder cancer develops when cells in the bladder begin to grow abnormally. Rather than grow and divide in an orderly way, these cells develop mutations that cause them to grow out of control and not die. These abnormal cells form a tumor.Causes of bladder cancer include: 1. Smoking and other tobacco use 2. Exposure to chemicals, especially working in a job that requires expos…

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  • Other factors that increase the risk of getting bladder cancer include a family history of the condition and previous cancer treatment. Birth defects involving the bladder increase the risk of bladder cancer. When people are born with a visible or invisible defect that connects their bladder with another organ in the abdomen, this leaves the bladder prone to frequent infection. This incr…

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Risk Factors

  • Factors that may increase bladder cancer risk include: 1. Smoking. Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes may increase the risk of bladder cancer by causing harmful chemicals to accumulate in the urine. When you smoke, your body processes the chemicals in the smoke and excretes some of them in your urine. These harmful chemicals may damage the lining of your bladder, which can i…

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  • Other factors that can increase your risk of bladder cancer include: 1. radiotherapy to treat previous cancers near the bladder, such as bowel cancer 2. previous treatment with certain chemotherapy medications, such as cyclophosphamide and cisplatin 3. having diabetes – bladder cancer is thought to be linked to certain treatments for type 2 diabetes 4. having a tube in your b…

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  • As with most cancers, survival rates are dependent upon the stage or extent of spread of the cancer when it is found. About 50% of bladder cancers are detected when the tumor is limited to the inner lining of the bladder, and 5-year survival rates for this early stage of cancer are nearly 100%. Cancers that have spread further typically have lower survival rates. Today the relative sur…

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  • 1. The recurrence rate for superficial transitional cell cancer of the bladder is high (70% within five years). As many as 80% of patients have at least one recurrence. 2. Patients with tumour recurrences within two years have an aggressive tumour and an increased risk of disease progression (especially with recurrences within 3-6 months). 3. The most significant prognostic …

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  • There is no single lab test that can specifically screen for and diagnose bladder cancer, even though urine tests may suggest that cancer is present. If a cancer is present, several tests may be abnormal, including urine cytology and tests for tumor marker proteins. A type of endoscopy, cystoscopy, is a procedure that allows visualization of the inside of the bladder through a thin, li…

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  • Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include: 1. Cystoscopy. To perform cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small, narrow tube (cystoscope) through the urethra. The cystoscope has a lens that allows your doctor to see the inside of your urethra and bladder, to examine these structures for signs of disease. 2. Biopsy. During cystoscopy, your doctor may pa…

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  • Although there’s no guaranteed way to prevent bladder cancer, you can take steps to help reduce your risk. For instance: 1. Don’t smoke. Not smoking means that cancer-causing chemicals in smoke can’t collect in your bladder. If you don’t smoke, don’t start. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about a plan to help you stop. Support groups, medications and other methods may help …

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  • There is no known way to prevent bladder cancer, but it is always advisable to follow a healthy lifestyle. Stop smoking and limit alcohol consumption to 1 to 2 drinks a day. A healthy diet contains lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and correct portion sizes of lean meats. Regular exercise and having checkups can also help you support your health and provide peace of mind…

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  • Bladder cancer can affect anyone, but certain groups are at greater risk. Men are three times more likely than women to get bladder cancer. Around 90% of cases occur in people over age 55, and whites are twice as likely as African Americans to develop the condition.

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  • 1. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK. It is the most frequently occurring tumour of the urinary system and accounts for around 1 in every 30 new cases of cancer each year in the UK. Bladder cancer is the 4th most common cancer in men and the 11th most common in women. 2. The overall incidence in the UK is 11.4 per 100,000 population. 3. Bl…

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