what can cause bladder cancer

Contents

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Symptoms

Cancers can be caused by DNA changes (gene mutations) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Several different gene changes are usually needed for a cell to become cancer. Acquired gene mutations Most gene mutations related to bladder cancer develop during a person’s life rather than having been inherited before birth.

Causes

Certain industrial chemicals have been linked with bladder cancer. Chemicals called aromatic amines, such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine, which are sometimes used in the dye industry, can cause bladder cancer. Workers in other industries that use certain organic chemicals also may have a higher risk of bladder cancer.

Prevention

Whether you or someone you love has cancer, knowing what to expect can help you cope. From basic information about cancer and its causes to in-depth information on specific cancer types – including risk factors, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment options – you’ll find it here. Explore Cancer A-Z

Complications

 · Smoking is a leading cause of cancer, including bladder cancer. In fact, smoking cigarettes, cigars, or pipes is thought to contribute to around half of all bladder cancer cases. This is because toxic chemicals from tobacco smoke pass into the bloodstream from the lungs. The blood then travels to the kidneys to be filtered.

What are the chances of getting bladder cancer?

Smoking Tobacco use is the biggest risk factor for developing bladder cancer. This risk increases with the amount and length of time smoking. Cancer-causing chemicals inhaled from burning tobacco enter the bloodstream. The body filters them from the blood through the kidneys and transfers them to the bladder to be removed from the body.

How dangerous is bladder cancer?

 · What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer forms when the DNA in cells in the bladder mutate or change, disabling the functions that control cell growth. In many cases, these mutated cells die or are attacked by the immune system. But some mutated cells may escape the immune system and grow out of control, forming a tumor in the bladder.

What is the number one cause of bladder cancer?

More often it’s caused by other things like an infection, benign (not cancer) tumors, stones in the kidney or bladder, or other benign kidney diseases. Still, it’s important to have it checked by a doctor so the cause can be found. Changes in bladder habits or symptoms of irritation. Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as:

What are the risks of bladder cancer?

 · When this urine passes through the bladder, the nicotine can irritate the bladder, cause inflammation, and increase your chances of getting bladder cancer by four to seven times. Contact with certain chemicals Exposure to chemicals such as arsenic in drinking water has been linked to bladder cancer.

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 · Smoking is the most prominent risk factor for bladder cancer, and quitting smoking can reduce your chances of developing bladder cancer over time. Smoking and bladder cancer Smoking can increase…

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What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.

How do you catch bladder cancer?

Risk factorsSmoking. Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes may increase the risk of bladder cancer by causing harmful chemicals to accumulate in the urine. … Increasing age. … Being male. … Exposure to certain chemicals. … Previous cancer treatment. … Chronic bladder inflammation. … Personal or family history of cancer.

What are the two greatest risk factors for bladder cancer?

Risk factors you can changeSmoking. Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer. … Workplace exposures. Certain industrial chemicals have been linked with bladder cancer. … Certain medicines or herbal supplements. … Arsenic in drinking water. … Not drinking enough fluids. … Race and ethnicity. … Age. … Gender.More items…•

Who typically gets bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer occurs mainly in older people. About 9 out of 10 people with this cancer are over the age of 55. The average age of people when they are diagnosed is 73. Overall, the chance men will develop this cancer during their life is about 1 in 27.

What are the 5 warning signs of bladder cancer?

Here are five warning signs to watch for:Blood in the urine (hematuria). This is the most common early symptom of bladder cancer and typically the first sign of bladder cancer that is seen. … UTI-like symptoms. … Unexplained pain. … Decreased appetite. … Postmenopausal uterine bleeding.

What is usually the first symptom of bladder cancer?

In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer. There may be enough blood to change the color of the urine to orange, pink, or, less often, dark red.

Does coffee cause cancer of the bladder?

In summary, findings from this large meta-analysis of prospective studies suggest that coffee consumption was not significantly associated with long-term risk of bladder cancer. Such a null association was similar for men and women, and was confirmed in never smokers.

How do you prevent bladder cancer?

Can Bladder Cancer Be Prevented?Don’t smoke. Smoking is thought to cause about half of all bladder cancers. … Limit exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace. Workers in industries that use certain organic chemicals have a higher risk of bladder cancer. … Drink plenty of liquids. … Eat lots of fruits and vegetables.

What causes bladder cancer in females?

While the exact cause of bladder cancer is not known, certain risk factors are linked to the disease, including tobacco smoking and exposure to certain chemicals and gases. Also, people with a family history of bladder cancer have a high risk of developing the disease.

Do you feel ill with bladder cancer?

Nausea and vomiting. Burning or pain when you urinate, feeling the need to go often, or blood in urine. Diarrhea. Feeling tired.

Does alcohol cause bladder cancer?

Conclusion: No significant association between alcohol consumption and bladder cancer risk was found in the entire population, but there was a linear dose-response relation in those who consume alcohol from liquor or spirits. Alcohol may elevate the risk of bladder cancer in males in a dose-independent way.

What is the life expectancy of someone with bladder cancer?

5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancerSEER Stage5-year Relative Survival RateIn situ alone Localized96% 70%Regional38%Distant6%All SEER stages combined77%Mar 1, 2022

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How does bladder cancer develop?

Bladder cancer develops when cells in the bladder begin to grow abnormally, forming a tumor in the bladder. Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do.

What type of cancer is a bladder cancer?

Types of bladder cancer include: Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma , previously called transitional cell carcinoma, occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells expand when your bladder is full and contract when your bladder is empty.

What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder — for instance, from an infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is rare in the United States.

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What is the male urinary system?

Male urinary system. Your urinary system — which includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — removes waste from your body through urine. Your kidneys, located in the rear portion of your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood. Bladder cancer is a common type …

Why are men more likely to get bladder cancer than women?

Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are. Exposure to certain chemicals. Your kidneys play a key role in filtering harmful chemicals from your bloodstream and moving them into your bladder. Because of this, it’s thought that being around certain chemicals may increase the risk of bladder cancer.

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: Blood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test. Frequent urination. Painful urination. Back pain.

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Where does bladder cancer start?

Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of your bladder. Urothelial cells are also found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) …

Why do people with bladder cancer have a higher risk of getting it themselves?

Sometimes this may be because the family members are exposed to the same cancer-causing chemicals (like those in tobacco smoke). They may also share changes in some genes (like GST and NAT) that make it hard for their bodies to break down certain toxins, which can make them more likely to get bladder cancer.

What are the risk factors for bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer Risk Factors. A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. You can change some risk factors, like smoking or weight ; others, like your age or family history, you can’t. But having a risk factor, or even many, …

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What chemicals can cause bladder cancer?

Certain industrial chemicals have been linked with bladder cancer. Chemicals called aromatic amines, such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine, which are sometimes used in the dye industry, can cause bladder cancer. Workers in other industries that use certain organic chemicals also may have a higher risk of bladder cancer.

Why is it important to know about bladder cancer?

Still, it’s important to know about the risk factors for bladder cancer because there may be things you can do that might lower your risk of getting it. If you’re at higher risk because of certain factors, you might be helped by tests that could find it early, when treatment is most likely to be effective. Many risk factors make a person more …

What is the cause of cowden disease?

Cowden disease, caused by mutations in the PTEN gene, is linked mainly to cancers of the breast and thyroid. People with this disease also have a higher risk of bladder cancer.

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Can bladder cancer be caused by a birth defect?

Another rare birth defect called exstrophy greatly increases a person’s risk of bladder cancer. In bladder exstrophy, both the bladder and the abdominal wall in front of the bladder don’t close completely during fetal development and are fused together. This leaves the inner lining of the bladder exposed outside the body. Surgery soon after birth can close the bladder and abdominal wall (and repair other related defects), but people who have this still have a higher risk for urinary infections and bladder cancer.

Where can urothelium cancer be found?

Urothelial carcinomas can sometimes form in different areas in the bladder, as well as in the lining of the kidney, the ureters, and urethra. Having cancer in the lining of any part of the urinary tract puts you at higher risk of having another cancer, either in the same spot as before, or in another part of the urinary tract. This is true even when the first tumor is removed completely. For this reason, people who have had bladder cancer need careful follow-up to look for new cancers.

What is a risk factor for bladder cancer?

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Learn more about the risk factors for bladder cancer.

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Can you prevent cancer?

There’s no way to completely prevent cancer. But there are things you can do that might help lower your risk. Learn more.

1. Tobacco Smoking

Smoking is a leading cause of cancer, including bladder cancer. In fact, smoking cigarettes, cigars, or pipes is thought to contribute to around half of all bladder cancer cases.

2. Occupational Exposure

Several industrial chemicals have also been linked with bladder cancer. Most of these have now been banned. However, bladder cancer can take up to 30 years to develop, meaning that occupational exposure still accounts for many cases.

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3. Other Environmental Exposure

High levels of arsenic or chlorine in drinking water may also increase the risk of developing bladder cancer. However, this is uncommon in the U.S.

5. Infection and Inflammation

Irritation and inflammation can also occur because of long-term or repeated urinary tract infections or bladder stones.

6. Herbal Medicine

Taking the Chinese herbal medicine aristolochia fangchi can increase the risk of bladder cancer. Other plants in the aristolochia family may also have similar effects.

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7. Inherited Conditions

A small number of inherited conditions can increase an individual’s susceptibility to bladder cancer. They include retinoblastoma, Cowden disease and Lynch syndrome.
Furthermore, some people are born with congenital bladder deformities that can increase the risk of cancer later in life.

Bladder Cancer Causes and Risk Factors

Cancer develops when cells’ DNA is altered, causing them to behave abnormally. Cancerous cells grow and divide more rapidly than normal, producing a mass of cells called a tumor.

What is the biggest risk factor for bladder cancer?

Tobacco use is the biggest risk factor for developing bladder cancer. This risk increases with the amount and length of time smoking. Cancer-causing chemicals inhaled from burning tobacco enter the bloodstream.

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What chemicals can cause bladder cancer?

Frequent exposure to chemicals that are commonly used in certain jobs may increase bladder cancer risk. This includes chemicals called aromatic amines. They are most commonly used in the textile, dye, rubber, leather, paint, and printing industries. Chemical exposure has also been associated with bladder cancer in truck drivers, hairdressers, and machinists. In addition, areas of the world with high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater have higher rates of bladder cancer. This includes Chile, Argentina, Taiwan, and some northeastern states of the United States.

How does smoking affect the bladder?

The body filters them from the blood through the kidneys and transfers them to the bladder to be removed from the body. The chemical-containing urine can cause damage to the cells in the bladder. Avoiding smoking is the most effective way to lower the risk. People who have quit smoking have a lower risk of bladder cancer compared …

When is bladder cancer most likely to develop?

People with bladder cancer are most likely to develop the disease after age 70.

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Can bladder cancer be caused by kidney stones?

Long-term bladder irritation and inflammation, such as that caused by infections and bladder or kidney stones, make it more likely for someone to develop bladder cancer. People with spinal cord injuries are at risk of both chronic infections and kidney stones. A parasitic infection called schistosomiasis increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. This infection is rare in the United States but common in the Middle East.

Does radiation cause bladder cancer?

Cyclophosphamide is one of these medications. In addition, some studies have suggested that radiation treatment to the pelvis may increase the risk of developing bladder tumors.

Can you get bladder cancer from a close relative?

You may be twice as likely to develop bladder cancer if you have a close relative who has had the disease. A close relative includes a parent, sibling, or child. This possibility may be related to genetic factors that make it harder for the body to remove dangerous chemicals after exposure.

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What are the causes of bladder cancer?

While the exact cause of bladder cancer is not known, certain risk factors are linked to the disease, including tobacco smoking and exposure to certain chemicals and gases. Also, people with a family history of bladder cancer have a high risk of developing the disease. Known risk factors for bladder cancer include:

What chemicals can cause bladder cancer?

Workplace exposure: Some chemicals used in the dye industry, such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine, have been associated with bladder cancer. Other industries where chemicals are used that may cause bladder cancer include rubber, leather, textiles, paint manufacturing and printing. People with jobs that may raise the risk of bladder cancer include painters, machinists, printers, hairdressers (due to hair dye exposure) and truck drivers (due to diesel fume exposure).

What happens when carcinogens are filtered?

As urine is held in the bladder, the carcinogens in the fluid may damage the cells on the bladder wall, increasing the risk of cancer.

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How many people get bladder cancer each year?

Each year, more than 80,000 Americans are diagnosed with bladder cancer. Anyone can get bladder cancer, but factors such as age, race and gender may increase the risk of the disease. Knowing behavior-related risk factors for bladder cancer may help you take preventive measures to reduce your chances of developing the disease or may help you …

Where is bladder cancer most common?

In Africa and the Middle East, where this parasite is more common, squamous cell bladder cancer is more common. Personal history of bladder cancer: Cancer can occur in other regions of the urothelium, such as in the lining of the kidneys, ureter and urethra. Cancer in any of these areas may increase the risk of another tumor in this layer of cells.

Can smoking cause bladder cancer?

Smoking: Cigarette smoking is the single greatest risk factor for bladder cancer. Smokers are more than twice as likely to get bladder cancer compared to nonsmokers. Inhalation during cigarette smoking brings some of the cancer-causing chemicals in cigarettes out of the lungs and into the blood. These carcinogens are then filtered by the kidneys and deposited into the urine. As urine is held in the bladder, the carcinogens in the fluid may damage the cells on the bladder wall, increasing the risk of cancer.

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Does drinking water reduce the risk of bladder cancer?

Likewise, not drinking enough may increase this risk because chemicals are left in the bladder longer.

Why is bladder cancer so early?

Bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms that cause a person to see a health care provider.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

Being unable to urinate. Lower back pain on one side. Loss of appetite and weight loss. Feeling tired or weak. Swelling in the feet. Bone pain. Again, many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than bladder cancer, but it’s important to have them checked.

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Why does urine have blood in it?

More often it’s caused by other things like an infection, benign (not cancer) tumors, stones in the kidney or bladder, or other benign kidney diseases. Still, it’s important to have it checked by a doctor so the cause can be found.

Why do I have trouble peeing?

Having to get up to urinate many times during the night. These symptoms are more likely to be caused by a urinary tract infection (UTI), bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or an enlarged prostate (in men).

How long does urine stay clear after bladder cancer?

Blood may be present one day and absent the next, with the urine remaining clear for weeks or even months. But if a person has bladder cancer, at some point the blood reappears.

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Can bladder cancer cause a change in urination?

Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as: Having to urinate more often than usual. Pain or burning during urination. Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full. Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream.

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer refers to the uncontrolled cell growth that begins in the bladder.

Which is more likely to develop bladder cancer: men or women?

Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women.

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How to hydrate yourself during cancer treatment?

Hydrate yourself well during cancer treatments: Drink extra fluids when you take medications such as cyclophosphamide.

Can drinking water cause bladder cancer?

Exposure to chemicals such as arsenic in drinking water has been linked to bladder cancer. Exposure depends on where you live and the water source. Certain chemicals used in the manufacture of dyes, leather, rubber, textiles, and paint products can also increase your risk of bladder cancer.

Can cyclophosphamide cause bladder cancer?

Certain cancer medications such as cyclophosphamide and radiation therapy that target the pelvic region make you more likely to get bladder cancer.

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Can smoking cigarettes cause cancer?

When you smoke cigarettes or cigars that contain nicotine, some amount of nicotine is also excreted in the urine. When this urine passes through the bladder, the nicotine can irritate the bladder, cause inflammation, and increase your chances of getting bladder cancer by four to seven times.

Can you prevent bladder cancer?

There is no sure way to prevent bladder cancer. But you can take certain measures to lower your risk of developing it. These include the following:

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