what is the most common treatment for bladder cancer

Contents

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Transurethral resection (TURBT) is often done first to find out how far the cancer has grown into the bladder wall. Chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy (removal of the bladder and nearby lymph nodes) is then the standard treatment.Sep 20, 2021

Medication

When the cancer has invaded the muscle, radical cystectomy (removal of the bladder) is the standard treatment. Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients.

Procedures

Bladder Cancer Surgery. Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer.

Therapy

The most common chemotherapeutic drug used in bladder cancer is cisplatin. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment approach that uses drugs and vaccines to harness the immune system’s natural ability to fight cancer, in the same way it fights off infections.

Nutrition

 · Radiation therapy : In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation is used to kill cancer cells. In the case of bladder cancer, the most common form of radiation therapy used is external beam focus radiation in which a beam outside the body is focused on the cancer much like in a traditional X-ray.

How to cure bladder cancer?

 · A far more threatening form of bladder cancer, MIBC is often treated by partial or complete removal of the bladder, usually after pre-surgery (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy, sometimes with concurrent radiation. After the tumor (or bladder) excision (adjuvant), more chemotherapy may be given.

How treatable is bladder cancer?

 · The following four types of chemotherapy are used to treat individuals with advanced bladder cancer: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (before surgery) Adjuvant chemotherapy (after surgery) Chemoradiation therapy (systemic chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy) Chemotherapy may be used alone as a single treatment option

What are the options for bladder cancer?

 · Bladder cancer is generally treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation (M1). After this treatment, the tumor is reexamined. If it appears to be eliminated, extra radiation to the bladder or cystectomy may be given. Options include chemotherapy, radiation, both simultaneously, or immunotherapy if there are still signs of disease.

How do they treat bladder cancer?

 · Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer. Atezolizumab. Avelumab. Balversa (Erdafitinib) Bavencio (Avelumab) Cisplatin. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride. Enfortumab Vedotin-ejfv. Erdafitinib.

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 · Bladder cancer is categorized by a number of types, depending on where exactly it forms, along with other factors. The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma (TCC). This type accounts for about 95 percent of bladder cancers. Cancer cells of this type look like the urothelial cells lining the inside of the …

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What’s the latest treatment for bladder cancer?

Advanced and metastatic bladder cancer treatment A notable new FDA approval in December 2019 was enfortumab vedotin (Padcev), approved for advanced bladder cancer patients who have not responded to chemotherapy or immune checkpoint drugs.

Are most bladder cancers curable?

What are the most common treatments for bladder cancer? Bladder cancer is highly treatable when it is diagnosed in the early stages.

Can bladder cancer be cured without surgery?

Many people with bladder cancer need surgery. But in some cases, it can’t remove all of the disease. So you’ll need other treatments along with, or instead of, an operation. These could include chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy.

Does bladder cancer spread quickly?

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

Is a 5 cm bladder tumor large?

CONCLUSIONS: Larger tumor size (>5 cm) is associated with greater length of stay, reoperation, readmission, and death following TURBT. Patients should be counseled appropriately and likely warrant vigilant observation prior to and following hospital discharge.

What are the odds that a tumor in the bladder is cancerous?

Risk of bladder cancer Overall, the chance men will develop this cancer during their life is about 1 in 27. For women, the chance is about 1 in 89.

How many rounds of chemo do you need for bladder cancer?

Chemotherapy before surgery or radiotherapy usually 3 cycles. Chemotherapy after surgery or radiotherapy, or alongside radiotherapy, can be 6 or more cycles.

What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.

Does removing the bladder cure bladder cancer?

Removing part of the bladder is not a common operation for bladder cancer. It is usually used to treat the very rare type of cancer called adenocarcinoma of the bladder. After having a partial cystectomy, you can pass urine in the normal way.

Where is the first place bladder cancer spreads?

When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes.

Which of the following is usually the first symptom of bladder cancer?

For most people, the first symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, also called hematuria. Sometimes the blood is visible, prompting the patient to visit a doctor.

What are the signs that bladder cancer has spread?

The signs and symptoms of bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body include:tiredness or weakness.pain when urinating.difficulty urinating or inability to urinate.pain in the lower back on one side of the body.weight loss.swollen feet.bone pain.

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: Bladder Cancer Surgery. Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer.

Can bladder cancer be removed?

Surgery, alone or with other treatments, is used to treat most bladder cancers. Early-stage bladder tumors can often be removed. But a major concern in people with early-stage bladder cancer is that new cancers often form in other parts of the bladder over time.

What kind of doctor treats cancer?

Based on your treatment options, you might have different types of doctors on your treatment team. These doctors could include: 1 Urologists: surgeons who specialize in treating diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system 2 Radiation oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with radiation therapy 3 Medical oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy

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What are the things to consider when considering cancer treatment?

Some important things to consider include: Your age and expected life span. Any other serious health conditions you have. The stage and grade of your cancer. The likelihood that treatment will cure your cancer (or help in some other way) Your feelings about the possible side effects from treatment.

What do people with cancer need?

People with cancer need support and information, no matter what stage of illness they may be in. Knowing all of your options and finding the resources you need will help you make informed decisions about your care.

What are the services offered by the American Cancer Society?

These might include nursing or social work services, financial aid, nutritional advice, rehab, or spiritual help. The American Cancer Society also has programs and services – including rides to treatment, lodging, and more – to help you get through treatment.

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What is the number to call for cancer treatment?

Call our National Cancer Information Center at 1-800-227-2345 and speak with one of our trained specialists. Palliative Care. Find Support Programs and Services in Your Area.

What percentage of bladder cancer is superficial?

Bladder Cancer Liver Gallbladder and Pancreas Urological Conditions Cancer. Over 75 percent of bladder cancers remain confined to the lining of the bladder and do not invade the bladder wall. These are called nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer, or superficial bladder cancer, and when managed well, they are associated with excellent prognoses.

What is bladder cancer?

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer, or advanced bladder cancer, is cancer that has invaded the bladder wall or spread outside of the bladder. These cancers require more aggressive clinical management. Bladder cancer treatment options vary depending on whether the cancer is nonmuscle-invasive or muscle-invasive, and specific treatments are determined …

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What is the procedure called when a camera is passed through the urethra?

Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which a thin, lighted tube with a camera is passed through the urethra into the bladder, allowing your doctor to see the inside of the bladder.

What is a cystoscope?

Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which a thin, lighted tube with a camera is passed through the urethra into the bladder, allowing your doctor to see the inside of the bladder. Most modern cystoscopes are also equipped with channels that permit small instruments to be passed into the bladder.

What is a TUR procedure?

Transurethral resection (TUR) is an endoscopic or scope procedure that does not involve making an incision in the body. Drug therapy after TUR is commonly prescribed for patients with large, multiple or high-grade tumors.

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What is TUR in medical terms?

Transurethral resection (TUR) is an endoscopic or scope procedure that does not involve making an incision in the body.

What is a TUR?

Transurethral resection (TUR) is an endoscopic or scope procedure that does not involve making an incision in the body. Drug therapy after TUR is commonly prescribed for patients with large, multiple or high-grade tumors.

What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Chemotherapy is commonly used in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Radical cystectomy and lymph node dissection. A radical cystectomy is the removal of the whole bladder and possibly nearby tissues and organs. For men, the prostate and part of the urethra are usually also removed.

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What type of surgery is used for bladder cancer?

Your health care team will recommend a specific surgery based on the stage and grade of the disease. Transurethral bladder tumor resection (TURBT). This procedure is used for diagnosis and staging, as well as treatment.

What is standard of care for cancer?

This section explains the types of treatments that are the standard of care for cancer. “Standard of care” means the best treatments known so far. When making treatment plan decisions, you are encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option.

What is bladder surgery?

Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. There are different types of surgery for bladder cancer. Your health care team will recommend a specific surgery based on the stage and grade of the disease.

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Does TURBT cure bladder cancer?

For people with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, TURBT may be able to eliminate the cancer. However, the doctor may recommend additional treatments to lower the risk of the cancer returning, such as intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy (see below).

Can you live without a bladder?

Living without a bladder can affect a patient’s quality of life. Finding ways to keep all or part of the bladder is an important treatment goal. For some people with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, treatment plans involving chemotherapy and radiation therapy after optimal TURBT (see “Bladder preservation” in Treatments by Stage) may be used as an alternative to removing the bladder.

How to give systemic therapy for bladder cancer?

Common ways to give systemic therapies include an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle or in a pill or capsule that is swallowed (orally). The types of systemic therapies used for bladder cancer include: Chemotherapy. Immunotherapy.

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy can all be treatment options, depending on the severity of this cancer. The physicians and surgeons at Yale Medicine’s Urologic Oncology Program are at the forefront of bladder cancer treatment and research, integrating innovative approaches and the latest research and technology to provide superior …

Is bladder cancer treatable?

If bladder cancer runs in your family or you’re concerned about this disease, you should know this one important fact: This type of cancer is highly treatable when diagnosed in the early stages. The most common form of bladder cancer starts in the organ’s innermost tissue layer.

Where does bladder cancer start?

The most common form of bladder cancer starts in the organ’s innermost tissue layer . “The lining of the bladder is constantly in contact with carcinogens that enter the bloodstream and get filtered through the kidneys,” says Daniel Petrylak, MD, urologist at Yale Medicine, and professor of medicine and urology.

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How old do you have to be to get bladder cancer?

Age : Bladder cancer typically affects people age 55 and older. Smoking : Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer. Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.

Can smoking cause bladder cancer?

Smoking : Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer. Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.

What is the best treatment for cancer?

Traditional chemotherapy : The above approaches may be combined with traditional or systemic chemotherapy, which works to kill cancer cells throughout the entire body. It also heightens the effectiveness of radiation treatments. Radiation therapy : In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation is used to kill cancer cells.

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What is the most common form of radiation therapy for bladder cancer?

In the case of bladder cancer, the most common form of radiation therapy used is external beam focus radiation in which a beam outside the body is focused on the cancer much like in a traditional X-ray.

When will bladder cancer be treated?

New Treatments For Bladder Cancer in 2020. In 2019 and early 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a number of new drugs for bladder cancer of all stages, and more treatments are on the horizon.

What is the FDA approved treatment for bladder cancer?

Advanced and metastatic bladder cancer treatment. A notable new FDA approval in December 2019 was enfortumab vedotin (Padcev), approved for advanced bladder cancer patients who have not responded to chemotherapy or immune checkpoint drugs. In clinical testing, this antibody-drug conjugate produced responses in 44% of patients who failed …

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Is bladder cancer metastatic?

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer treatment (MIBC), not metastatic. A far more threatening form of bladder cancer, MIBC is often treated by partial or complete removal of the bladder, usually after pre-surgery (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy, sometimes with concurrent radiation. After the tumor (or bladder) excision (adjuvant), …

What is NMIBC treatment?

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treatments (NMIBC) In patients with NMIBC, tumors are confined to the inner cell layer of the bladder and have not invaded the thick muscle tissue of the bladder. NMIBC is usually treated by surgical excision in a procedure known as trans urethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), …

What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma (TCC). This type accounts for about 95 percent of bladder cancers.

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Is bladder cancer invasive?

Almost all squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder are invasive. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder closely resembles the gland-forming cells seen in colon cancers, and accounts for about 1 percent of bladder cancers in the United States.

What type of cancer grows out of the bladder?

Cancer cells of this type look like the urothelial cells lining the inside of the bladder. There are two subtypes of TCC: Papillary carcinoma: Grows out from the inner surface of the bladder toward the hollow center in finger-like projections.

What percentage of bladder cancer is squamous cell carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 1 percent to 2 percent of bladder cancers diagnosed in the United States. Squamous cells look similar to the flat cells on the surface of the skin. Almost all squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder are invasive.

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What is the rarest bladder cancer?

Small-cell carcinoma is extremely rare, accounting for fewer than 1 percent of all bladder cancers diagnosed in the United States. This type of bladder cancer begins in neuroendocrine cells, which are similar to nerves. Sarcoma is another very rare type of bladder cancer that begins in the muscle layer of the bladder wall.

Where does bladder cancer start?

This type of bladder cancer begins in neuroendocrine cells, which are similar to nerves. Sarcoma is another very rare type of bladder cancer that begins in the muscle layer of the bladder wall.

Does a flat carcinoma grow out of the bladder?

Flat carcinomas: This type of TCC does not grow out of the urothelium toward the center of the bladder. Rather, flat carcinomas remain on the surface of the bladder wall. If a flat carcinoma is confined to the urothelium, it is called noninvasive flat carcinoma or flat carcinoma in situ. Rarer forms of bladder cancer include:

Treatment Overview

Surgery

Therapies Using Medication

Radiation Therapy

Medically reviewed by
Dr. Pawan Katti

Your provider will work with you to develop a care plan that may include one or more of these treatment options.

Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.

Medication

Immunotherapy: This therapy helps boost your immune system fight against the cancerous cells.

Atezolizumab . Durvalumab . Avelumab

Chemotherapy: Injection of cancer-fighting medications into the bladder through a catheter to kill the harmful cells.

Gemcitabine/Cisplatin . Methotrexate/ Vinblastine/Doxorubicin/Cisplatin (called MVAC) . Cisplatin/ Methotrexate/Vinblastine (called CMV) . Carboplatin/Paclitaxel . Docetaxel

Procedures

Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT): An instrument called a resectoscope is inserted into the bladder through the urethra which is used to remove abnormal tissues or tumors.

Cystectomy: Removal of a part of bladder is called as partial cystectomy or complete bladder removal which is called as radical cystectomy.

Therapy

Radiation therapy:High-energy radiation is used to kill the cancer cells.

Nutrition

Foods to eat:

  • Focus on starchy carbohydrates such as bread, pasta, rice or potatoes
  • Whole grains are highly recommended
  • Eat a variety of fruit and vegetables daily
  • Include lean protein such as meat, fish, eggs, beans or pulses
  • Have milk and cheese

Foods to avoid:

  • Eggs, total fat, butter
  • Soft drinks, caffeine, chlorinated surface water, sugar

Specialist to consult

Urologist

Specializes in the urinary tract disease.

Oncologist

Specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

Physical, Emotional, and Social Effects of Cancer

Remission and The Chance of Recurrence

  • Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. There are different types of surgery for bladder cancer. Your health care team will recommend a specific surgery based on the stage and grade of the disease. Transurethral bladder tumor resection (TURBT). This procedure is used for diagnosis and staging, as…

See more on cancer.net

If Treatment Does Not Work

  • Systemic therapy is the use of medication to destroy cancer cells. This type of medication is given through the bloodstream or from the mouth to reach cancer cells throughout the body (the “system” in “systemic therapy”). Systemic therapies are generally prescribed by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication. Common ways to give s…

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