how do you get bladder cancer

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Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.

What are the chances of dying from bladder cancer?

Inherited gene mutations. Some people inherit gene changes from their parents that increase their risk of bladder cancer. But bladder cancer does not often run in families, and inherited gene mutations are not thought to be a major cause of this disease. Some people seem to inherit a reduced ability to detoxify (break down) and get rid of …

How dangerous is bladder cancer?

Jan 30, 2019 · Bladder cancer usually starts in the lining or inner layer of the bladder wall. As the cancer grows through the layers of the bladder wall, it becomes harder to treat. The “transitional epithelium” on the picture is the lining layer where most bladder cancers start. Over time they can spread deeper into the other layers.

Do you know the early signs of bladder cancer?

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the bladder, it is called bladder cancer. Each year in the United States, about 56,000 men and 17,500 women get bladder cancer, and about 12,000 men and 4,700 women die from the disease. To lower the risk of bladder cancer, don’t smoke and be especially …

What is the cure for bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms that cause a person to see a health care provider. Blood in the urine. In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer. There may be enough blood to change the color of the urine to orange, pink, or …

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Chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy (removal of the bladder and nearby lymph nodes) is then the standard treatment. Partial cystectomy is rarely an option for stage III cancers. Chemotherapy (chemo) before surgery (with or without radiation) can shrink the tumor, which may make surgery easier.

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What type of people get bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer occurs mainly in older people. About 9 out of 10 people with this cancer are over the age of 55. The average age of people when they are diagnosed is 73. Overall, the chance men will develop this cancer during their life is about 1 in 27.

How do you catch bladder cancer?

Risk factorsSmoking. Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes may increase the risk of bladder cancer by causing harmful chemicals to accumulate in the urine. … Increasing age. … Being male. … Exposure to certain chemicals. … Previous cancer treatment. … Chronic bladder inflammation. … Personal or family history of cancer.

What are the warning signs of bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer: Symptoms and SignsBlood or blood clots in the urine.Pain or burning sensation during urination.Frequent urination.Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night.Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to pass urine.Lower back pain on 1 side of the body.

Who is most at risk for bladder cancer?

More than 70% of people with bladder cancer are older than 65. Gender. Men are 4 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than women, but women are more likely to die from bladder cancer than men. Also women may experience delayed diagnosis of bladder cancer.

What is usually the first symptom of bladder cancer?

In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer. There may be enough blood to change the color of the urine to orange, pink, or, less often, dark red.

Can bladder cancer be prevented?

There is no sure way to prevent bladder cancer. Some risk factors, like age, gender, race, and family history can’t be controlled.

What causes bladder cancer in females?

While the exact cause of bladder cancer is not known, certain risk factors are linked to the disease, including tobacco smoking and exposure to certain chemicals and gases. Also, people with a family history of bladder cancer have a high risk of developing the disease.

Is bladder cancer curable?

Follow-up and outlook after treatment The outlook for people with stage 0a (non-invasive papillary) bladder cancer is very good. These cancers can be cured with treatment. During long-term follow-up care, more superficial cancers are often found in the bladder or in other parts of the urinary system.

Does bladder cancer spread fast?

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

Does caffeine cause bladder cancer?

In summary, findings from this large meta-analysis of prospective studies suggest that coffee consumption was not significantly associated with long-term risk of bladder cancer. Such a null association was similar for men and women, and was confirmed in never smokers.

What is the life expectancy of someone with bladder cancer?

5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancerSEER Stage5-year Relative Survival RateIn situ alone Localized96% 70%Regional38%Distant6%All SEER stages combined77%Mar 1, 2022

What are 3 risk factors for developing bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer can affect anyone. Major risk factors include smoking, exposure to certain chemicals, and having a family history of the disease. Learn more about the risk factors for bladder cancer.

How Does The Doctor Know I Have Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer might cause symptoms such as: 1. Having trouble peeing 2. Feeling pain when peeing 3. Needing to go more often than normal 4. Seeing…

Tests to Look For Bladder Cancer

Your doctor may do other tests to find out more about the cancer. Some of them are:X-ray: Dye is put into a vein for a special x-ray of the kidneys…

How Serious Is My Cancer?

If you have bladder cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called staging. Your doctor will want to find out the s…

What Kind of Treatment Will I Need?

There’s more than one way to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you. Doctors may have d…

What Will Happen After Treatment?

You will be glad when treatment is over. But it’s hard not to worry about cancer coming back. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry…

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How do bladder cancer mutations occur?

Some of these acquired gene mutations result from exposure to cancer-causing chemicals or radiation. For example, chemicals in tobacco smoke can be absorbed into the blood, filtered by the kidneys, and end up in urine, where they can affect bladder cells. Other chemicals may reach the bladder the same way. But sometimes, gene changes may just be random events that sometimes happen inside a cell, without having an outside cause.

What are the genes that cause bladder cancer?

Acquired changes in certain genes, such as the TP53 or RB1 tumor suppressor genes and the FGFR and RAS oncogenes , are thought to be important in the development of some bladder cancers. Changes in these and similar genes may also make some bladder cancers more likely to grow and spread into the bladder wall than others.

What causes cancer cells to turn on oncogenes?

Cancers can be caused by DNA changes (gene mutations) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Several different gene changes are usually needed for a cell to become cancer.

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Can bladder cancer cause cancer?

Researchers do not know exactly what causes most bladder cancers. But they have found some risk factors (see Bladder Cancer Risk Factors ) and are starting to understand how they cause cells in the bladder to become cancer. Certain changes in the DNA inside normal bladder cells can make them grow abnormally and form cancers.

Can bladder cancer be caused by inherited mutations?

Inherited gene mutations. Some people inherit gene changes from their parents that increase their risk of bladder cancer. But bladder cancer does not often run in families, and inherited gene mutations are not thought to be a major cause of this disease.

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Signs of bladder cancer are problems peeing, pain when peeing, needing to go more often than normal, and seeing blood in your urine

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What is the best test to find out if you have bladder cancer?

Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to make pictures of the organs inside your body, like your bladder and kidneys. It can help show the size of a bladder cancer and if it has spread. Bone scan: A bone scan can help show if bladder cancer has spread to the bones. This test is not done unless you have bone pain.

Why do you need a cystoscope?

More than one sample may be taken because sometimes cancer starts in more than one part of the bladder. Salt water washings of the inside of your bladder may also be collected to look for cancer cells.

What tests are done to check for bladder cancer?

This might include a rectal exam, during which a gloved finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, a pelvic exam might also be done.

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Where does urine go when you pee?

Urine flows through the ureters and into your bladder, where it’s stored. When you urinate (pee), the bladder squeezes the urine out through a tube called the urethra. Bladder cancer usually starts in the lining or inner layer of the bladder wall.

What is it called when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body?

For instance, cancer cells in the bladder can travel to the bone and grow there. When cancer cells spread, it’s called metastasis . Cancer is always named for the place where it starts.

Where is the bladder located?

The bladder is a hollow organ that stores urine before it leaves your body. It sits in the lowest part of your belly, called your pelvis. Urine is made in your kidneys. Tubes called ureters connect your kidneys to the bladder. Urine flows through the ureters and into your bladder, where it’s stored. When you urinate (pee), the bladder squeezes the urine out through a tube called the urethra.

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How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

What Are the Symptoms of Bladder Cancer? 1 Blood in the urine. This is the most common symptom. 2 Having to urinate often. 3 Pain while urinating. 4 Back pain. 5 Pelvic pain.

Where is the bladder located?

The bladder (sometimes called the urinary bladder) is a balloon-shaped organ in your lower abdomen, near the pelvis. It stores urine from the kidneys until it is passed out of the body.

Is smoking a risk factor for bladder cancer?

Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer. Other risk factors include—

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Why is bladder cancer so early?

Bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms that cause a person to see a health care provider.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

Being unable to urinate. Lower back pain on one side. Loss of appetite and weight loss. Feeling tired or weak. Swelling in the feet. Bone pain. Again, many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by something other than bladder cancer, but it’s important to have them checked.

Why does urine have blood in it?

More often it’s caused by other things like an infection, benign (not cancer) tumors, stones in the kidney or bladder, or other benign kidney diseases. Still, it’s important to have it checked by a doctor so the cause can be found.

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Why do I have trouble peeing?

Having to get up to urinate many times during the night. These symptoms are more likely to be caused by a urinary tract infection (UTI), bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or an enlarged prostate (in men).

How long does urine stay clear after bladder cancer?

Blood may be present one day and absent the next, with the urine remaining clear for weeks or even months. But if a person has bladder cancer, at some point the blood reappears.

Can bladder cancer cause a change in urination?

Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as: Having to urinate more often than usual. Pain or burning during urination. Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full. Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream.

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What is the first treatment for bladder cancer?

Chemo (with or without radiation) is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body (M1). After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done.

What is stage 0 bladder cancer?

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis or carcinoma in situ). In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded (spread deeper into) the bladder wall.

What to do if you have cancer that hasn’t been removed?

(Less often, close follow-up alone might be an option.) If all of the cancer wasn’t removed, options are intravesical BCG or cystectomy (removal of part or all of the bladder).

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How to get rid of stage IV cancer?

The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options.

What is the treatment for cancer that recurs in distant parts of the body?

Cancers that recur in distant parts of the body can be harder to remove with surgery, so other treatments, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy , might be needed. For more on dealing with a recurrence, see Understanding Recurrence.

Can you get a radical cystectomy before surgery?

Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo. But most doctors prefer to give chemo before surgery because it’s been shown to help patients live longer than surgery alone. When chemo is given first, surgery is delayed. This is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the bladder cancer, but it might be harmful if the tumor continues to grow during chemo.

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Can you get a partial cystectomy for bladder cancer?

Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients . Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo.

How to see if you have tumors in your bladder?

Retrograde pyelogram. Your doctor will insert a thin tube (catheter) into your urethra and bladder. They’ll inject dye through the catheter so they can see the lining of the bladder. If there are any tumors in your urinary tract, they’ll show up here.

What tests can be used to check for bladder cancer?

They’ll be sent to the lab to check for cancer. Imaging Tests. These use X-rays, magnetic fields, sound waves, or radioactive substances to create pictures of what’s happening inside your body. Here are just a few of the imaging tests your doctor may use to see if you have bladder cancer: Intravenous pyelogram (IVP).

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How to check for cancer in urine?

When you pee in a cup at your doctor’s office, there are a number of things they and other health professionals can look for: 1 Urinalysis. Your doctor will check to see if there’s any blood, or other substances, in your urine. 2 Urine cytology. Your doctor will use a microscope to check your urine for cancer cells. 3 Urine culture. Your doctor will send your urine to a lab. After a few days, lab technicians will check to see what kinds of germs grow in it. These results will tell your doctor if you have a bladder infection. 4 Urine tumor marker tests. These look for substances that are released by bladder cancer cells. Your doctor may use one or more of these along with a urine cytology to see if you have the disease.

What is a urine tumor test?

Urine tumor marker tests. These look for substances that are released by bladder cancer cells. Your doctor may use one or more of these along with a urine cytology to see if you have the disease.

What test can show if you have a bladder tumor?

Ultrasound. Sound waves create pictures of your urinary tract. It allows your doctor to see how big a bladder tumor is. Chest X-ray. If cancer in your bladder spread to your lungs, this test will allow your doctor to see it.

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What do doctors look for when you pee in a cup?

When you pee in a cup at your doctor’s office, there are a number of things they and other health professionals can look for: Urinalysis. Your doctor will check to see if there’s any blood, or other substances, in your urine. Urine cytology. Your doctor will use a microscope to check your urine for cancer cells.

What to do if a cystoscopy doesn’t look right?

If your doctor finds something that doesn’t look right during your cystoscopy, they’ll take a sample of it ( biopsy) to see whether it’s cancer. During a TURBT, your surgeon will remove the tumor and some of the bladder muscle near it. They’ll be sent to the lab to check for cancer. Imaging Tests.

What is the best way to diagnose bladder cancer?

Cystoscopy. If bladder cancer is suspected, most doctors will recommend a cystoscopy. . A urologist uses a cystoscope, which is a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and a lens or a small video camera on the end. For details on how this procedure is done, see Cystoscopy.

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What is the biopsy for bladder cancer?

A biopsy is when tiny pieces (called samples) of the abnormal-looking tissue are taken out and tested for cancer cells. If bladder cancer is suspected, a biopsy is needed to be sure of the diagnosis.

What tests are used to check for bladder cancer?

These include the tests called NMP22 ® (or BladderChek ® ), BTA Stat ®, Immunocyt ® , and UroVysion ®, which are discussed in Can Bladder Cancer Be Found Early?

What is a physical exam for bladder cancer?

A physical exam can provide information about possible signs of bladder cancer and other health problems. The doctor might do a digital rectal exam (DRE), during which a gloved, lubricated finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, the doctor might do a pelvic exam as well.

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How long does it take for a urine culture to show up?

It can take time for the bacteria to grow, so it may take a few days to get the results of this test.

How does ultrasound help with bladder cancer?

Ultrasound uses sound waves to create pictures of internal organs. It can be useful in determining the size of a bladder cancer and whether it has spread beyond the bladder to nearby organs or tissues. It can also be used to look at the kidneys. This is usually an easy test to have, and it uses no radiation.

How is a catheter used for a urine x-ray?

For this test, a catheter (thin tube) is put in through the urethra and up into the bladder or into a ureter. Then a dye is injected through the catheter to make the lining of the bladder, ureters, and kidneys easier to see on x-rays.

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: Bladder Cancer Surgery. Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer. Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer. Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer.

What do people with cancer need?

People with cancer need support and information, no matter what stage of illness they may be in. Knowing all of your options and finding the resources you need will help you make informed decisions about your care.

What kind of doctor treats cancer?

Based on your treatment options, you might have different types of doctors on your treatment team. These doctors could include: 1 Urologists: surgeons who specialize in treating diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system 2 Radiation oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with radiation therapy 3 Medical oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy

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Why is it important to communicate with your cancer care team?

Communicating with your cancer care team is important so you understand your diagnosis, what treatment is recommended, and ways to maintain or improve your quality of life.

What are the things to consider when considering cancer treatment?

Some important things to consider include: Your age and expected life span. Any other serious health conditions you have. The stage and grade of your cancer. The likelihood that treatment will cure your cancer (or help in some other way) Your feelings about the possible side effects from treatment.

Can you continue cancer treatment?

Whether or not you continue treatment, there are still things you can do to help maintain or improve your quality of life.

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Can bladder cancer be removed?

Surgery, alone or with other treatments, is used to treat most bladder cancers. Early-stage bladder tumors can often be removed. But a major concern in people with early-stage bladder cancer is that new cancers often form in other parts of the bladder over time.

What is the diet associated with bladder cancer?

The Western dietary pattern is rich in highly processed foods and low in fruits and vegetables.

How many bladder cancer cases are non-muscle invasive?

Roughly 75 percent of bladder cancer cases are non-muscle invasive. About 60 to 70 percent of cases of this type of cancer will recur. Regular follow-up appointments with your care team are important to monitor your health. There’s no one way of eating that’s proven to reduce the risk of recurrence.

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What are some good foods to eat when you have cancer?

Adding a source of protein to meals and snacks can help you meet your daily needs. Whole eggs, fish, nuts, seeds, and Greek yogurt are just a few examples of healthy protein sources.

Does eating fruits and vegetables help with bladder cancer?

Some studies link eating lots of fruits and vegetables to a lower risk of bladder cancer. However, a 2018 review suggested vegetable intake does not play a role in preventing recurrence. A diet high in fruits and vegetables is still recommended for other reasons.

Does bladder cancer reduce vitamin D?

Cancer treatments may reduce other nutrients in the body, including vitamin D and folate. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have questions about nutrient depletions caused by cancer treatments. Summary. Many supplements, including probiotics, may be appropriate for people with bladder cancer.

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Can probiotics help with bladder cancer?

Talk to your healthcare team if you have questions about whether any supplements could help you. Certain types of probiotic strains may not be safe for some people with bladder cancer, so it’s important to speak with your doctor before using pro biotics.

Is Mediterranean diet good for bladder cancer?

Summary. There’s no one recommended diet for people with bladder cancer, but the Mediterranean diet may have some benefits.

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