how do you treat bladder cancer

Contents

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Treatment
  1. Surgery, to remove the cancer cells.
  2. Chemotherapy in the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy), to treat cancers that are confined to the lining of the bladder but have a high risk of recurrence or progression to a higher stage.
May 17, 2021

Medication

Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: Bladder Cancer Surgery Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer Targeted Therapy Drugs for Bladder Cancer

Procedures

This early stage of bladder cancer is most often treated with transurethral resection (TURBT) with fulguration followed by intravesical therapy within 24 hours. Stage 0a Sometimes no further treatment is needed. Cystoscopy is then done every 3 to 6 months to watch for signs that the cancer has come back.

Therapy

Treatments for Muscle-Invasive (Advanced) Bladder Cancer Cystectomy (Bladder Removal) Surgery When bladder cancer tumors completely invade the bladder’s muscular wall, the standard of care is to perform bladder removal surgery. Typically, complete removal of the bladder ( radical cystectomy) is required.

Nutrition

 · Radiation treatment for bladder cancer can be used: To treat early-stage cancer after surgery; As the main treatment for early-stage cancer if you can’t have surgery; As part of the treatment for advanced bladder cancer; Radiation is often given along with chemo. Certain chemo drugs can help the radiation work better. Side effects of radiation treatments

What is the best cure for bladder cancer?

Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to treat cancer. Chemo for bladder cancer can be given in 2 different ways: Intravesical chemotherapy. For this treatment, the chemo drug is put right into the bladder. This type of chemo is used for …

Is there a cure for bladder cancer?

 · Having certain changes in the genes that are linked to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide. Taking Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb.

What are the chances of survival for bladder cancer?

Intravesical therapy is cancer treatment that is placed directly into the bladder through a catheter rather than being given by mouth or injected into a vein. The most common form of intravesical therapy used in bladder cancer is immunotherapy. This treatment causes the body’s own immune system to attack the cancer.

How do I care for someone with bladder cancer?

 · Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy. Bladder Cancer Slides Bladder cancer occurs when cancerous cells, often from the lining of the bladder, begin to multiply.

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 · An Italian case-control study showed some advantages of a Mediterranean diet for reducing bladder cancer risk. The Mediterranean diet is a nutrient-dense diet rich in foods like vegetables, fruits,…

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Is cancer of the bladder curable?

The prognosis depends on the following: The stage of the cancer (whether it is superficial or invasive bladder cancer, and whether it has spread to other places in the body). Bladder cancer in the early stages can often be cured.

Does bladder cancer spread fast?

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

What is the latest treatment for bladder cancer?

Advanced and metastatic bladder cancer treatment A notable new FDA approval in December 2019 was enfortumab vedotin (Padcev), approved for advanced bladder cancer patients who have not responded to chemotherapy or immune checkpoint drugs.

What is the main cause of bladder cancer?

Smoking. Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals. If you smoke for many years, these chemicals pass into your bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into your urine.

What are the warning signs of bladder cancer?

Bladder Cancer: Symptoms and SignsBlood or blood clots in the urine.Pain or burning sensation during urination.Frequent urination.Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night.Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to pass urine.Lower back pain on 1 side of the body.

What is usually the first symptom of bladder cancer?

In most cases, blood in the urine (called hematuria) is the first sign of bladder cancer. There may be enough blood to change the color of the urine to orange, pink, or, less often, dark red.

Is bladder cancer a terminal?

The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed. The 5-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 96%.

Do you lose your hair with chemo for bladder cancer?

But other cells in the body, such as those in the bone marrow (where new blood cells are made), the lining of the mouth and intestines, and the hair follicles, also divide quickly. These cells are also likely to be affected by chemo, which can lead to side effects.

How long can you live after bladder removal?

Patients in group 1 achieved a progression-free 5-year survival rate of 77% and an overall survival rate of 63% after 5 years. In group 2 patients achieved a progression-free survival rate of 51% after 5 years and an overall survival rate of 50%.

Where does bladder cancer spread first?

When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes.

Can CT scan detect bladder cancer?

A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to create three-dimensional, cross-sectional pictures of the bladder, as well as the ureters and kidneys. A CT scan may be used to see whether bladder cancer has invaded the bladder wall or has spread to other organs or nearby lymph nodes.

Can you live without a bladder?

It can affect your body image, and you may worry about its impact on your relationships and sex life. With enough time, you should be able to do almost everything you did before. Even if you now use a urostomy bag (to collect your urine), you can go back to work, exercise, and swim.

Which Treatments Are Used For Bladder Cancer?

Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include: 1. Surgery 2. Intravesical th…

Which Doctors Treat Bladder Cancer?

Depending on your options, you can have different types of doctors on your treatment team. The types of doctors who treat bladder cancers include:…

Making Treatment Decisions

It’s important to discuss all of your treatment options, including their goals and possible side effects, with your doctors to help make the decisi…

Help Getting Through Treatment

Your cancer care team will be your first source of information and support, but there are other resources for help when you need it. Hospital- or c…

Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis). In either case, the cancer has not inv…

Treating Stage I Bladder Cancer

Stage I bladder cancers have grown into the connective tissue layer of the bladder wall but have not reached the muscle layer.Transurethral resecti…

Treating Stage II Bladder Cancer

These cancers have invaded the muscle layer of the bladder wall. Transurethral resection (TURBT) is typically the first treatment for these cancers…

Treating Stage III Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs.Transurethral resection (TURBT) is typical…

Treating Stage IV Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the abdominal or pelvic wall (T4b tumors) or have spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. Stage IV ca…

Treating Bladder Cancer That Progresses Or Recurs

If cancer continues to grow during treatment (progresses) or comes back (recurs), your treatment options will depend on where and how much the canc…

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What is the first treatment for bladder cancer?

Chemo (with or without radiation) is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body (M1). After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done.

Can bladder cancer be cured?

The outlook for people with stage 0a (non-invasive papillary) bladder cancer is very good. These cancers can be cured with treatment. During long-term follow-up care, more superficial cancers are often found in the bladder or in other parts of the urinary system.

What are the factors that affect cancer treatment?

Other factors, such as the size of the tumor, how fast the cancer cells are growing (grade), and a person’s overall health and preferences, also affect treatment options.

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What is stage 0 bladder cancer?

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis or carcinoma in situ). In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded (spread deeper into) the bladder wall.

How to get rid of stage IV cancer?

The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options.

Does cancer grow back after treatment?

If cancer continues to grow during treatment (progresses) or comes back after treatment (recurs), treatment options will depend on where and how much the cancer has spread, what treatments have already been used, and the patient’s overall health and desire for more treatment.

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What is the treatment for T3 tumors?

An option for some patients with single, small tumors (some T3) might be treatment with a second (and more extensive) transurethral resection (TURBT) followed by a combination of chemo and radiation. If cancer is still found when cystoscopy is repeated, cystectomy might be needed.

Can bladder cancer recur after treatment?

Bladder cancer may recur, even after successful treatment. Because of this, people with bladder cancer need follow-up testing for years after successful treatment. What tests you’ll have and how often depends on your type of bladder cancer and how it was treated, among other factors.

How does radiation therapy help bladder cancer?

Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses beams of powerful energy, such as X-rays and protons, to destroy the cancer cells. Radiation therapy for bladder cancer usually is delivered from a machine that moves around your body, directing the energy beams to precise points.

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How to diagnose bladder cancer?

Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include: Using a scope to examine the inside of your bladder (cystoscopy). To perform cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small , narrow tube (cystoscope) through your urethra. The cystoscope has a lens that allows your doctor to see the inside of your urethra and bladder, …

Can TURBT be used for bladder cancer?

TURBT can also be used to treat bladder cancer. Examining a urine sample (urine cytology). A sample of your urine is analyzed under a microscope to check for cancer cells in a procedure called urine cytology. Imaging tests.

What tests can be done to determine if you have bladder cancer?

Tests may include: CT scan.

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What is a low grade bladder cancer?

Low-grade bladder cancer. This type of cancer has cells that are closer in appearance and organization to normal cells (well differentiated). A low-grade tumor usually grows more slowly and is less likely to invade the muscular wall of the bladder than is a high-grade tumor. High-grade bladder cancer.

What is the best treatment for cancer?

Radiation therapy, to destroy cancer cells, often as a primary treatment when surgery isn’t an option or isn’t desired. Immunotherapy, to trigger the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells, either in the bladder or throughout the body. Targeted therapy, to treat advanced cancer when other treatments haven’t helped.

What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment approach that uses drugs and vaccines to harness the immune system’s natural ability to fight cancer, in the same way it fights off infections. The approach is still being researched and there is a lot left to learn, but clinical studies have shown that immunotherapy holds a lot of promise in its ability to treat a wide range of malignancies, including some types of bladder cancer.

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What is the procedure to remove a bladder tumor?

Cystectomy (Bladder Removal) Surgery. When bladder cancer tumors completely invade the bladder’s muscular wall, the standard of care is to perform bladder removal surgery. Typically, complete removal of the bladder ( radical cystectomy) is required. Partial cystectomy is rare because the requirements are that the tumor is easily accessible …

What percentage of bladder cancer is superficial?

Bladder Cancer Liver Gallbladder and Pancreas Urological Conditions Cancer. Over 75 percent of bladder cancers remain confined to the lining of the bladder and do not invade the bladder wall. These are called nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer, or superficial bladder cancer, and when managed well, they are associated with excellent prognoses.

What is bladder cancer?

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer, or advanced bladder cancer, is cancer that has invaded the bladder wall or spread outside of the bladder. These cancers require more aggressive clinical management. Bladder cancer treatment options vary depending on whether the cancer is nonmuscle-invasive or muscle-invasive, and specific treatments are determined …

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What is the procedure called when a camera is passed through the urethra?

Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which a thin, lighted tube with a camera is passed through the urethra into the bladder, allowing your doctor to see the inside of the bladder.

What is a cystoscope?

Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which a thin, lighted tube with a camera is passed through the urethra into the bladder, allowing your doctor to see the inside of the bladder. Most modern cystoscopes are also equipped with channels that permit small instruments to be passed into the bladder.

What is TUR in medical terms?

Transurethral resection (TUR) is an endoscopic or scope procedure that does not involve making an incision in the body.

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Immunotherapy is treatment that boosts your immune system to attack the cancer cells. Different types of immunotherapy can be used to treat bladder cancer. These drugs can be put right into the bladder (as a liquid) or given into a vein.

Can chemo be used for bladder cancer?

For early-stage bladder cancers, chemo may be used: Before surgery to shrink a tumor. After surgery to kill any cancer cells that remain. With radiation to help it work better. Chemo is usually the main treatment for advanced bladder cancers, such as those that have spread to other parts of the body.

Where does cancer start?

Cancer can start any place in the body. Cancer that starts in the bladder is called bladder cancer. It starts when cells in the bladder grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body.

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What is the tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder?

Tubes called ureters connect your kidneys to the bladder. Urine flows through the ureters and into your bladder, where it’s stored. When you urinate (pee), the bladder squeezes the urine out through a tube called the urethra. Bladder cancer usually starts in the lining or inner layer of the bladder wall.

What tests are done to check for bladder cancer?

This might include a rectal exam, during which a gloved finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, a pelvic exam might also be done.

What is the test for cancer?

Urine tests: For these tests, you’ll be asked to pee in a cup. Your urine is then tested for cancer cells, blood, or certain proteins (called tumor markers). Cystoscopy: For this exam, a doctor called a urologist looks at the inside of your bladder using a tool called a cystoscope.

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What does stage mean in cancer?

The stage describes the growth or spread of the cancer in the place it started. It also tells if the cancer has spread to other organs of your body that are close by or farther away. Your cancer can be stage 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. The lower the number, the less the cancer has spread.

What is the best treatment for bladder cancer?

For those people, treatment with a single drug, such as gemcitabine or cisplatin, may be an option. Other drugs sometimes used alone for bladder cancer include, docetaxel, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, ifosfamide, and pemetrexed. Doctors give chemo in cycles, with each period of treatment followed by a rest period to allow …

Does radiation help bladder cancer?

This can lower the chance that the cancer will come back later. In people getting radiation therapy, to help the radiation work better. As the main treatment for bladder cancers that have spread to distant parts of the body.

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What are the side effects of chemo?

The side effects of chemo depend on the type and dose of drugs given and how long they are taken. When chemo and radiation are given at the same time, side effects tend to be worse. Common side effects of chemo include: 1 Nausea and vomiting 2 Loss of appetite 3 Hair loss 4 Mouth sores 5 Diarrhea 6 Constipation 7 Increased risk of infections (because of a shortage of white blood cells) 8 Easy bleeding or bruising, even after minor cuts or injuries (due to a shortage of blood platelets) 9 Fatigue (because of a shortage of red blood cells)

Where is chemo put in the bladder?

For this treatment, the chemo drug is put right into the bladder. This type of chemo is used for bladder cancer that’s only in the lining of the bladder. It’s described in Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer.

How long does bladder cancer last?

Each cycle typically lasts for a few weeks. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell (urothelial) cancers, but there are other types as well, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. These rare types of bladder cancer may be treated with drugs different from those listed above.

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What type of cancer is bladder cancer?

Most bladder cancers are transitional cell (urothelial) cancers , but there are other types as well, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. These rare types of bladder cancer may be treated with drugs different from those listed above.

Does chemo kill cancer cells?

Side effects of chemotherapy. Chemo drugs attack cells that are dividi ng quickly, which is why they work against cancer cells. But other cells in the body, such as those in the bone marrow (where new blood cells are made), the lining of the mouth and intestines, and the hair follicles, also divide quickly.

What is the treatment for stage IV bladder cancer?

Treatment of stage IV bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung, bone, or liver, may include the following: Chemotherapy with or without local treatment ( surgery or radiation therapy ). Immunotherapy ( immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy ).

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What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys.

Does smoking cause bladder cancer?

Smoking can affect the risk of bladder cancer. Signs and symptoms of bladder cancer include blood in the urine and pain during urination. Tests that examine the urine and bladder are used to help diagnose bladder cancer. Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

Where is the bladder located?

The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist.

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Where does bladder cancer start?

Most bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells. Transitional cell carcinoma can be low- grade or high-grade: Low-grade transitional cell carcinoma often recurs (comes back) after treatment, but rarely spreads into the muscle layer of the bladder or to other parts of the body.

What is it called when you have cancer in your bladder?

Cancer that is in the lining of the bladder is called superficial bladder cancer. Cancer that has spread through the lining of the bladder and invades the muscle wall of the bladder or has spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes is called invasive bladder cancer. See the following PDQ summaries for more information:

What happens after bladder cancer diagnosis?

After bladder cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the bladder or to other parts of the body.

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Where is bladder cancer found?

Bladder cancer is a disease in which an abnormal uncontrolled growth of cells (tumor) is found in the tissues of the bladder. Bladder cancers can form in many locations in and around the bladder and the cancer cells can pen-etrate through the different layers of the bladder wall. The deeper the invasion, the more likely the cancer cells can spread to other organs.

What is the most common form of bladder cancer?

Transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma is the most common form of bladder cancer, accounting for more than 90 percent of these cancers. This type originates in the transitional cells that line the bladder and urinary collecting system.

What is the name of the new technology that allows doctors to see cancerous growths in the bladder?

Cleveland Clinic is among the first centers in the United States to use a new technology called Cysview(TM) that allows doctors to clearly see cancerous growths in the bladder.

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What is the treatment for bladder cancer?

Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.

Is bladder cancer treatable?

Thus, bladder cancer, if detected in the early stage is treatable and has higher survival rates. However, if the cancer is detected in the advanced stages, treatment becomes difficult and the survival rate is low.

How long do people with bladder cancer live?

Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more . The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time. The physician often uses an overall five-year survival rate.

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What is SEER in cancer?

The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) stages are taken from the SEER database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute. SEER database groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages.

What is the difference between high grade and low grade bladder cancer?

Low-grade cancers: Less aggressive cancers have a low chance of becoming high grade and do not require aggressive treatments, such as radiation or bladder removal.

What is the procedure to remove bladder cancer?

Tumors in the bladder muscle: In case of bladder cancer that has invaded the muscle wall but hasn’t spread to the lymph nodes, the physician recommends radical cystectomy. In this procedure, the physician removes the bladder, nearby lymph nodes and other nearby organs.

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What is the first line of treatment for metastatic bladder cancer?

Then, the physician may perform a radical cystectomy to remove cancer that has invaded beyond the bladder wall. Metastatic bladder cancer: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first line of treatment for this type of bladder cancer.

Does eating fruits and vegetables help with bladder cancer?

Some studies link eating lots of fruits and vegetables to a lower risk of bladder cancer. However, a 2018 review suggested vegetable intake does not play a role in preventing recurrence. A diet high in fruits and vegetables is still recommended for other reasons.

Does broccoli help bladder cancer?

A 2010 study of 239 people with bladder cancer looked at whether eating cruciferous vegetables, mainly broccoli, had any effect on survival. People who ate the most broccoli tended to live longer. These positive effects on survival were seen even with one serving of raw broccoli per month.

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How to get rid of a swollen thigh?

Here are some tips that might help: 1 Accept help from family or friends who offer to buy groceries or bring you meals or snacks. 2 Keep simple snacks and meals in your home to minimize prep time. 3 Do your best to eat something every 2 to 3 hours. 4 Eat in a relaxing, pleasant environment. 5 Avoid filling up on fluids before meals. 6 You may find bland, starchy foods such as pasta, crackers, toast, or cereal easier to tolerate. 7 If you’re having trouble eating enough, focus on high-calorie, high-protein foods like eggs, peanut butter, and cheese to increase your calorie consumption. 8 Consider using nutritional supplement shakes or making smoothies if drinking feels easier than eating something more solid. 9 For some people, sniffing fresh lemon or using ginger tea or sucking on ginger candies can help.

Does eating healthy help with cancer?

There have not been any conclusive results, but some research has shown that specific foods, especially those high in antioxidants, may have anti-cancer effects. For now, the recommendation is to eat a healthy, well-balanced diet, which has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer recurrence and death.

Does red meat cause cancer?

A 2018 meta-analysis showed a higher risk of bladder cancer in people who eat more processed red meat. Unprocessed red meat may not increase the risk of bladder cancer.

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Does eating red meat cause bladder cancer?

A 2018 meta-analysis showed a higher risk of bladder cancer in people who eat more processed red meat. Unprocessed red meat may not increase the risk of bladder cancer. Research has also associated Western-type diets with an increased risk of bladder cancer recurrence.

How many bladder cancer cases are non-muscle invasive?

Roughly 75 percent of bladder cancer cases are non-muscle invasive. About 60 to 70 percent of cases of this type of cancer will recur. Regular follow-up appointments with your care team are important to monitor your health. There’s no one way of eating that’s proven to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Diagnosis

Treatment

Clinical Trials

Coping and Support

Medically reviewed by
Dr. Pawan Katti

Your provider will work with you to develop a care plan that may include one or more of these treatment options.

Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.

Medication

Immunotherapy: This therapy helps boost your immune system fight against the cancerous cells.

Atezolizumab . Durvalumab . Avelumab

Chemotherapy: Injection of cancer-fighting medications into the bladder through a catheter to kill the harmful cells.

Gemcitabine/Cisplatin . Methotrexate/ Vinblastine/Doxorubicin/Cisplatin (called MVAC) . Cisplatin/ Methotrexate/Vinblastine (called CMV) . Carboplatin/Paclitaxel . Docetaxel

Procedures

Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT): An instrument called a resectoscope is inserted into the bladder through the urethra which is used to remove abnormal tissues or tumors.

Cystectomy: Removal of a part of bladder is called as partial cystectomy or complete bladder removal which is called as radical cystectomy.

Therapy

Radiation therapy:High-energy radiation is used to kill the cancer cells.

Nutrition

Foods to eat:

  • Focus on starchy carbohydrates such as bread, pasta, rice or potatoes
  • Whole grains are highly recommended
  • Eat a variety of fruit and vegetables daily
  • Include lean protein such as meat, fish, eggs, beans or pulses
  • Have milk and cheese

Foods to avoid:

  • Eggs, total fat, butter
  • Soft drinks, caffeine, chlorinated surface water, sugar

Specialist to consult

Urologist

Specializes in the urinary tract disease.

Oncologist

Specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

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