where does bladder cancer spread to first

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When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes.

How dangerous is bladder cancer?

Local bladder cancer metastasis. When bladder cancer spreads, it first invades the bladder wall, which is made up of four distinct layers. It can take some time for cancer to penetrate all of these layers, but once it has, it can then spread into the surrounding fatty tissues and lymph nodes. Once bladder cancer has reached the lymph nodes, it can travel to distant parts of the body …

What are the stages of bladder cancer?

 · For instance, cancer cells in the bladder can travel to the bone and grow there. When cancer cells spread, it’s called metastasis. Cancer is always named for the place where it starts. So when bladder cancer spreads to the bone (or any other place), it’s still called bladder cancer. It’s not called bone cancer unless it starts in the bone.

How quickly does bladder cancer grow and spread?

 · As bladder cancer becomes more advanced, it spreads first to the muscular wall of the bladder, then into either the abdomen, pelvis, or local lymph nodes. When bladder cancer has become metastatic, it spreads to the lungs, bones, or liver. 3 Learn More: Bladder Cancer Stages, Prognosis, and Survival Rates Was this page helpful? 8 Sources

What causes cancer in the bladder?

T describes how far the main (primary) tumor has grown through the bladder wall and whether it has grown into nearby tissues. N indicates any cancer spread to lymph nodes near the bladder. Lymph nodes are bean-sized collections of immune system cells, to …

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How do you know if bladder cancer has spread?

Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to make pictures of the organs inside your body, like your bladder and kidneys. It can help show the size of a bladder cancer and if it has spread. Bone scan: A bone scan can help show if bladder cancer has spread to the bones. This test is not done unless you have bone pain.

Is bladder cancer likely to metastasize?

As many as 50% of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer may have occult metastases that become clinically apparent within 5 years of initial diagnosis and around 5% will have distant metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis. Most patients with overt metastatic disease die within 2 years despite chemotherapy.

What organs can bladder cancer spread to?

As bladder cancer grows it can invade the entire way through the wall and into the fat surrounding the bladder or even into other organs (prostate, uterus, vagina). This local extension is the most common way bladder cancer spreads.

At what stage does bladder cancer spread?

Stage IV: This may include any of the following: The cancer has spread from your bladder into your pelvic or abdominal wall. But it hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or distant organs. The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

What happens in the final stages of bladder cancer?

When bladder cancer reaches stage 4, the original tumor has often grown and pushed through the wall of the bladder. Cancer cells may have spread to organs close to the bladder or those further away, such as the liver or lungs.

Which of the following is usually the first symptom of bladder cancer?

For most people, the first symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, also called hematuria. Sometimes the blood is visible, prompting the patient to visit a doctor.

How fast growing is bladder cancer?

low grade – the cancer cells are usually slow-growing. Most bladder tumours are low grade. high grade – the cancer cells look very abnormal and grow quickly. They are more likely to spread.

Is bladder cancer aggressive?

It has not grown in toward the hollow part of the bladder, and it has not spread to the thick layer of muscle or connective tissue of the bladder (Tis, N0, M0). This is always a high-grade cancer (see “Grades,” below) and is considered an aggressive disease because it can lead to muscle-invasive disease.

Is a 5 cm bladder tumor large?

CONCLUSIONS: Larger tumor size (>5 cm) is associated with greater length of stay, reoperation, readmission, and death following TURBT. Patients should be counseled appropriately and likely warrant vigilant observation prior to and following hospital discharge.

What stage is bladder cancer in lymph nodes?

N categories for bladder cancer The N category describes spread only to the lymph nodes near the bladder (in the true pelvis) and those along the blood vessel called the common iliac artery. These lymph nodes are called regional lymph nodes.

Is bladder cancer a terminal?

The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%. However, survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed. The 5-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 96%.

How Does The Doctor Know I Have Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer might cause symptoms such as: 1. Having trouble peeing 2. Feeling pain when peeing 3. Needing to go more often than normal 4. Seeing…

Tests to Look For Bladder Cancer

Your doctor may do other tests to find out more about the cancer. Some of them are:X-ray: Dye is put into a vein for a special x-ray of the kidneys…

How Serious Is My Cancer?

If you have bladder cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called staging. Your doctor will want to find out the s…

What Kind of Treatment Will I Need?

There’s more than one way to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you. Doctors may have d…

What Will Happen After Treatment?

You will be glad when treatment is over. But it’s hard not to worry about cancer coming back. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry…

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Where is the bladder located?

The bladder is a hollow organ that stores urine before it leaves your body. It sits in the lowest part of your belly, called your pelvis. Urine is made in your kidneys. Tubes called ureters connect your kidneys to the bladder. Urine flows through the ureters and into your bladder, where it’s stored. When you urinate (pee), the bladder squeezes the urine out through a tube called the urethra.

What is it called when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body?

For instance, cancer cells in the bladder can travel to the bone and grow there. When cancer cells spread, it’s called metastasis . Cancer is always named for the place where it starts.

How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Signs of bladder cancer are problems peeing, pain when peeing, needing to go more often than normal, and seeing blood in your urine

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What is the best test to find out if you have bladder cancer?

Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to make pictures of the organs inside your body, like your bladder and kidneys. It can help show the size of a bladder cancer and if it has spread. Bone scan: A bone scan can help show if bladder cancer has spread to the bones. This test is not done unless you have bone pain.

What tests are done to check for bladder cancer?

This might include a rectal exam, during which a gloved finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, a pelvic exam might also be done.

Where does urine go when you pee?

Urine flows through the ureters and into your bladder, where it’s stored. When you urinate (pee), the bladder squeezes the urine out through a tube called the urethra. Bladder cancer usually starts in the lining or inner layer of the bladder wall.

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Can a test show if bladder cancer is growing?

Tests can show how deeply the cancer has grown into the bladder wall.

Where does bladder cancer start?

Bladder cancer is a growth that starts in the inner wall of the bladder, the organ that collects and expels urine created by the kidneys. The bladder has three layers of muscular walls that make up its structure. 1 A cancerous growth in the bladder can grow uncontrollably and start spreading to other parts of the body.

How does cancer spread?

The cancer spreads from the original location through a process called metastasis. When cancer spreads, it’s called metastatic cancer or a metastatic tumor. This spreading can happen between tissues, or through the fluids of the blood or lymphatic systems. 3

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What tests are used to diagnose bladder cancer?

These include blood tests, imaging tests that look inside the body, and samples of the tumors called a bladder biopsy, usually taken during surgery.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?

The most common symptom of bladder cancer is reddish or brownish-colored urine from blood in the urine. Other symptoms include the frequent urge to urinate, pain while urinating, and pain in the back or pelvis. 4

How do doctors diagnose cancer?

When doctors first diagnose a cancerous tumor of any kind, they assess how much it has grown, how far it has spread in the body, and how abnormal, or wild, the cancerous cells in the tumor look. These assessments are used to determine cancer’s stage (0 to IV) and grade. 2

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How is cancer stage determined?

Cancer staging specifics are determined by guidelines set by the American Joint Committee on Cancer’s system, named the TNM staging system. 2

Where does a syringe spread?

Spread into the fat around the bladder or into the reproductive organs, but not to the lymph nodes

Where does bladder cancer start?

Nearly all bladder cancers start in the lining or urothelium. As the cancer grows into or through the other layers in the bladder, it becomes more advanced (the stage goes up).

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Where is the cancer in the bladder?

The cancer has grown into the layer of connective tissue under the lining layer of the bladder, but has not reached the layer of muscle in the bladder wall (T1).

What is the stage of bladder cancer?

The stage of bladder cancer is based on the results of physical exams, biopsies, and imaging tests (CT or MRI scan, x-rays, etc.), which are described in Tests for Bladder Cancer, as well as the results of surgery .

How many layers are there in the bladder?

The wall of the bladder has 4 main layers.

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What is the stage of cancer?

This process is called staging. The stage of a cancer describes the extent (amount) of cancer in the body. It helps determine how serious the cancer is and how best to treat it. The stage is one of the most important factors in deciding how to treat the cancer and determining how successful treatment might be.

Does cancer spread to lymph nodes?

The cancer has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0).

Is bladder cancer staging more accurate than clinical staging?

It’s based on the results of the physical exam, biopsy, imaging tests, and the results of surgery. This is likely to be more accurate than clinical staging, which only takes into account the tests done before surgery. Bladder cancer staging can be complex.

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Where does bladder cancer start?

Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of your bladder. Urothelial cells are also found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) …

How does bladder cancer develop?

Bladder cancer develops when cells in the bladder begin to grow abnormally, forming a tumor in the bladder. Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do.

What is the most common type of bladder cancer?

Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder — for instance, from an infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is rare in the United States.

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What is the male urinary system?

Male urinary system. Your urinary system — which includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — removes waste from your body through urine. Your kidneys, located in the rear portion of your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood. Bladder cancer is a common type …

What type of cancer is a bladder cancer?

Types of bladder cancer include: Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma , previously called transitional cell carcinoma, occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells expand when your bladder is full and contract when your bladder is empty.

Why are men more likely to get bladder cancer than women?

Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women are. Exposure to certain chemicals. Your kidneys play a key role in filtering harmful chemicals from your bloodstream and moving them into your bladder. Because of this, it’s thought that being around certain chemicals may increase the risk of bladder cancer.

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How do you know if you have bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: Blood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test. Frequent urination. Painful urination. Back pain.

What is the first treatment for bladder cancer?

Chemo (with or without radiation) is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body (M1). After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done.

What is stage 0 bladder cancer?

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta) and flat non-invasive carcinoma (Tis or carcinoma in situ). In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded (spread deeper into) the bladder wall.

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How to get rid of stage IV cancer?

The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options.

What is the treatment for cancer that recurs in distant parts of the body?

Cancers that recur in distant parts of the body can be harder to remove with surgery, so other treatments, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy , might be needed. For more on dealing with a recurrence, see Understanding Recurrence.

Can you get a partial cystectomy for bladder cancer?

Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients . Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo.

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Can a TURBT cure bladder cancer?

Transurethral resection (TURBT) with fulguration is usually the first treatment for these cancers. But it’s done to help determine the extent of the cancer rather than to try to cure it. If no other treatment is given, many people will later get a new bladder cancer, which often will be more advanced. This is more likely to happen if the first cancer is high-grade (fast-growing).

Can bladder cancer be cured?

The outlook for people with stage 0a (non-invasive papillary) bladder cancer is very good. These cancers can be cured with treatment. During long-term follow-up care, more superficial cancers are often found in the bladder or in other parts of the urinary system.

How does bladder cancer affect survival?

The factors influencing survival include: 1 Age: Increasing age has been linked to a lower survival rate in people with bladder cancer. 7 2 Sex: A literature review of 27 studies and 23,754 patients found that women had a greater risk for disease recurrence following localized treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. 8 3 Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of recurrence and mortality in people with bladder cancer. 9 4 Recurrence: Recurrence of bladder cancer forebodes a poor prognosis, with a median survival of six months after recurrence. Although people with local recurrence have a slightly better prognosis, those with disease recurrence at local and distant sites perform very poorly.

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What is the prognosis of bladder cancer?

Prognosis describes how severe a person’s cancer is and their chances of survival. It is influenced by factors that are not reflected in the SEER survival statistics. Chief among them are the type, stage, and grade of bladder cancer. Other factors also contribute.

How many people will die from bladder cancer in 2020?

Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States, representing 4.5% of all new cancer cases in the country. 1 There were an estimated 81,400 new cases of bladder cancer in 2020. This form of cancer resulted in about 17,980 deaths in the same year. While bladder cancer is relatively common, the average five-year survival rate is quite high at 76.9%. This rate has improved over the past several years, and a person’s chance of survival is influenced by many factors.

What is the function of the bladder?

The bladder is flexible, being made of smooth muscle. It works to collect and then eliminate urine from your body. The bladder’s flexible walls are made perfectly to expand and contract as necessary to hold urine until it is expelled from the body.

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How many stages of cancer are there in TNM?

Its purpose is to measure and communicate the extent of tumor growth. There are five TNM stages, from 0 to 4. The lower the stage number, the smaller the spread of cancer.

What is the difference between localized and distant cancer?

These rates are classified by stage: localized, regional, and distant. Cancer is considered localized when it is only found in the part of the body where it started. Regional means the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or organs and tissues, while distant refers to cancer that has metastasized to distant organs or lymph nodes.

Is bladder cancer muscle invasive?

Approximately 20% of newly diagnosed bladder cancer cases are muscle-invasive. 5. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: The cancer in this case is confined to the inner surface of the bladder and does not involve the bladder muscle. Some cases may progress to muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

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How to test for bladder cancer?

Urinalysis: One way to test for bladder cancer is to check for blood in the urine ( hematuria ). This can be done during a urinalysis, which is a simple test to check for blood and other substances in a sample of urine. This test is sometimes done as part of a general health check-up.

What is the best test to check for bladder cancer?

Urine cytology: In this test, a microscope is used to look for cancer cells in urine. Urine cytology does find some cancers, but it’s not reliable enough to make a good screening test. Urine tests for tumor markers: Newer tests look for certain substances in urine that might be a sign of bladder cancer. These include:

Why do we need to do a bladder screening?

This is because no screening test has been shown to lower the risk of dying from bladder cancer in people who are at average risk.

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What causes blood in urine?

This test is sometimes done as part of a general health check-up. Blood in the urine is usually caused by benign (non-cancer) problems, like infections, but it also can be the first sign of bladder cancer. Large amounts of blood in urine can be seen if the urine turns pink or red, but a urinalysis can find even small amounts.

Can urine be found with cancer?

Large amounts of blood in urine can be seen if the urine turns pink or red, but a urinalysis can find even small amounts. Urinalysis can help find some bladder cancers early, but it has not been shown to be useful as a routine screening test. Urine cytology: In this test, a microscope is used to look for cancer cells in urine.

Can bladder cancer be detected early?

No screening tests are recommended for people at average risk, but bladder cancer can be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms. (See Bladder Cancer Signs and Symptoms for details.) Many of these symptoms often have less serious causes, but it’s important to have them checked right away so the cause can be found and treated, if needed. If the symptoms are from bladder cancer, finding it early offers the best chance for successful treatment.

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